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Alexander, Don, "Curriculum Turmoil in Liberal Democracies," Journal of Curriculum Studies, 23(January-February, 1991), 71-78., Don Alexander

Annotation: Discusses two views of liberal democracy found in liberal education.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Policies and Policy Making
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Liberal Education/General Education, Ideology and School Knowledge

Atkins, Elaine, "From Competing Paradigms to Final Consensus: A Case Study of the Deliberation of a Conflict-Prone Curriculum Group," Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 5(Summer, 1990), 308-327., Elaine Atkins

Annotation: Interprets the deliberation process engaged in by a college faculty group in General Studies.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Decision-making Processes, Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Hermeneutic Inquiry
Type of Study: Case Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum Deliberation, Higher Education Curriculum, Liberal Education/General Education

Boostrom, Robert, "Arts and Disciplines," pp. 34-54 in Robert Boostrom, Thinking: The Foundation of Critical and Creative Learning in the Classroom. New York: Teachers College Press, 2005., Robert Boostrom

Annotation: Examines Plato's focus on physical education and music, history of seven liberal arts, and what makes a discipline; all this relates to thinking as a curricular emphasis.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Content Selection and Organization, Liberal Education/General Education, Vocational vs. Liberal Education, Curriculum History

Brady, Marion, "Thinking Big: A Conceptual Framework for the Study of Everything," Phi Delta Kappan, 86(December, 2004), 276-281., Marion Brady

Annotation: Presents a conception of general education that does not consist of separate disciplines but consists of seeing the big picture with connections, relationships, and synthesizing of ideas.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Conceptions and Theories, Curriculum Proposals in Coherent Form, Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Theoretical/Conceptual Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Content Selection and Organization, Liberal Education/General Education, Curriculum Integration, Curriculum and the Disciplines

Broudy, Harry S., "Can Research Escape the Dogma of Behavioral Objectives?" School Review, 79(November, 1970), 43-56.*, Harry S. Broudy

Annotation: Argues for embracing the interpretive dimension, not just the behavioral dimension, in educational research studies; explains four uses of schooling as detailed in the author's earlier work.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Conceptions and Theories, Defining Curriculum Research Questions
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Ampliative Criticism, Normative Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum Aims and Objectives, Liberal Education/General Education, Knowledge Utilization, Knowledge Generation

Broudy, Harry S., "The Uses of Humanistic Schooling," pp. 15-29 in Chester E. Finn, Jr., Diane Ravitch, and Robert T. Fancher, eds., Against Mediocracy: The Humanities in America's High Schools. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1984., Harry S. Broudy

Annotation: Decsribes the role of the humanities in general education; discusses curriculum choices and teaching in the humanities in terms of four uses of schooling.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Conceptual Analysis,Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Content Selection and Organization, Liberal Education/General Education, Humanities

Broudy, Harry S., The Uses of Schooling. New York: Routledge, 1988., Harry S. Broudy

Annotation: Describes four uses of schooling: replicative, applicative, associative, and interpretive; urges curriculum be designed with these uses in mind.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Conceptions and Theories, Curriculum Theorists
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Content Selection and Organization, Curriculum Aims and Objectives, Curriculum and the Disciplines, Classics of Curriculum Literature, Curriculum Frameworks, Liberal Education/General Education, Specialization vs General Education, Value Assumptions and Ideologies in Curriculum

Hansen, Klaus-Henning, "Rewriting Bildung for Postmodernity: Books on Educational Philosophy, Classroom Practice, and Reflective Teaching," Curriculum Inquiry, 38(January,2008), 93-115., Klaus-Henning Hansen

Annotation: Reviews three books (2000, 2002, 2003) on the concepts of Bildung and Bildung-centered Didaktik and underlines the need to rewrite Bildung today.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Conceptions and Theories
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay, Philosophical Inquiry-Ampliative Criticism
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Liberal Education/General Education, Content Selection and Organization

Hirst, Paul H., "Liberal Education and the Nature of Knowledge," pp. 113-138 in R. D. Archambault, ed., Philosophical Analysis and Education . London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1965. Reprinted pp. 87-111 in R. S. Peters, ed., The Philosophy of Education . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1973.*, Paul H. Hirst

Annotation: An analysis of liberal education and of three examples: Harvard's Red Book (1946), Peterson's model (1960), and Hirst's (1965).

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Conceptions and Theories, Curriculum Proposals in Coherent Form
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Conceptual Analysis
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Liberal Education/General Education, Content Selection and Organization

Johnson, Earl S., "Science, Society, and the Curriculum," School Review, 66 (Winter, 1958), 437-445. Reprinted pp. 157-165 in Earl S. Johnson, The Humanistic Teachings of Earl S. Johnson . Boulder: Westview Press, 1983., Earl S. Johnson

Annotation: Describes the relation of science and society to curriculum.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Development, Organization, Design,Curriculum Contexts and Societal Influences
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Normative Inquiry,Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum Integration, Liberal Education/General Education, Science

Johnson, Earl S., The Humanistic Teachings of Earl S. Johnson. Boulder: Westview Press, 1983., Earl S. Johnson

Annotation: Presents collected articles by the author which identifies his values.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Theorists,Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Normative Inquiry,Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay
Type of Study: Collection of Studies
Narrow Topic: Liberal Education/General Education

Kimball, Bruce A., "Founders of 'Liberal Education': The Case for Roman Orators against Socratic Philosophers," Teachers College Record , 85(Winter, 1983), 225-249., Bruce A. Kimball

Annotation: Gives an historical examination of the origins of liberal education.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Historical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Liberal Education/General Education, Curriculum History

Kliebard, Herbert M., "The Liberal Arts Curriculum and Its Enemies: The Effort to Redefine General Education," pp. 29-51 in Ian Westbury and Alan C. Purves, eds, Cultural Literacy and the Idea of General Education. 87th Yearbook of the NSSE, Part II. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1988. Reprinted pp. 27-50 in Herbert M. Kliebard, Forging the American Curriculum: Essays in Curriculum History and Theory. New York: Routledge, 1992. Also reprinted pp. 3-25 in Margaret J. Early and Kenneth J. Rehage, eds., Issues in Curriculum: A Selection of Chapters from NSSE Yearbooks, 98th Yearbook of the NSSE, Part II. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1999., Herbert M. Kliebard

Annotation: Shows how the views of Herbert Spencer and others in the mid-nineteenth century challenged and overtook the historic view of liberal education, the effect of which are evident in curricula of twentieth century schooling.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Theorists,Curriculum Policies and Policy Making
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Historical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Liberal Education/General Education, Curriculum History, Comparative Curriculum

Kneller, George F., "Analysis," pp. 1-26 in his Movements of Thought in Modern Education . New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1984.*, George F. Kneller

Annotation: Sets forth the processes of philosophical analysis as they are applied in educational research.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Inquiry Guidelines
Source Discipline: Education
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Conceptual Analysis
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Liberal Education/General Education, Authority of Teacher, Knowledge Generation

Levine, Donald N., "Goals for the Liberal Curriculum I: Powers of Prehension," pp. 190-203; and "II: Powers of Expression," pp. 204-219 in his Powers of the Mind: The Reinvention of Liberal Learning in America. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2006., Donald N. Levine

Annotation: Sets forth eight powers of the mind as a proposed structure for liberal curriculum in higher education; includes four powers of prehension (audiovisual, kinesthetic, understanding verbal texts, understanding natural and cultural worlds) and four powers of expression (reflexive self, inventing statements-problems-actions, integrating knowledge, and communication).

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Proposals in Coherent Form
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Liberal Education/General Education, Higher Education Curriculum

Levine, Donald N., "Joseph Schwab's Assault on Facile Teaching," pp. 114-145 in his Powers of the Mind: The Reinvention of Liberal Learning in America. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2006., Donald N. Levine

Annotation: Traces the intellectual contributions of Joseph J. Schwab at the University of Chicago and in the broader field of education.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Theorists
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay, Historical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum History, Curriculum Professors, Liberal Education/General Education

Martin, Jane Roland, "Needed: A New Paradigm for Liberal Education," pp. 37-60 in Jonas F. Soltis, ed., Philosophy and Education. Eightieth Yearbook of the Society for the Study of Education, Part I. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981., Jane Roland Martin

Annotation: Critiques the traditional view of knowledge in the curriculum and advocates adding emotion and action to reason and thinking.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Policies and Policy Making,Curriculum Visions and Philosophies
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Normative Inquiry,Philosophical Inquiry-Ampliative Criticism
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Value Assumptions and Ideologies in Curriculum, Liberal Education/General Education

McCarthy, Cameron, Michael D. Giardina, Susan Juanita Harewood, and Jin-Kyung Park, "Contesting Culture: Identity and Curriculum Dilemmas in the Age of Globalization, Postcolonialism, and Multiplicity," Harvard Educational Review, 73(Fall, 2003), 449-465., Cameron McCarthy, Michael D. Giardina, Susan Juanita Harewood, and Jin-Kyung Park

Annotation: Analyzes trends in globalization, postcolonialism, and identity in relation to popular culture; distinguishes monological and postcolonialist theories and their implications for curriculum and pedagogy, siding with the latter; comments on several preceding related articles.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Contexts and Societal Influences, Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Critical Inquiry, Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Value Assumptions and Ideologies in Curriculum, Content Selection and Organization, Liberal Education/General Education, Ideology and School Knowledge

Mulcahy, D. G., The Educated Person: Toward a New Paradigm for Liberal Education. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008., D. G. Mulcahy

Annotation: Outlines and justifies a new paradigm for liberal education based on the demands of living (work demands, recreational demands, social and practical demands, philosophical demands); reviews and critiques the ideas on liberal education by Newman, Adler, Martin, and others in formulating this new paradigm.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Proposals in Coherent Form, Curriculum Conceptions and Theories, Curriculum Theorists
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay, Philosophical Inquiry-Ampliative Criticism
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Liberal Education/General Education

Nord, Warren A., Does God Make a Difference? Taking Religion Seriously in Our Schools and Universities. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010., Warren A. Nord

Annotation: Provides a book-length argument in support of teaching religious studies as a separate set of courses in schools and universities and of infusing religious perspectives into all other subjects where relevant.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Proposals in Coherent Form
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay, Philosophical Inquiry-Ampliative Criticism, Philosophical Inquiry-Conceptual Analysis, Religious Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Liberal Education/General Education, Value Assumptions and Ideologies in Curriculum, Criticism of Schooling, Ethical Issues in Curriculum, Citizenship Education, Hidden Curriculum, Religious & Private Schooling

Popkewitz, Thomas S., "Knowledge, Power, and a General Curriculum," pp. 69-93 in Ian Westbury and Alan C. Purves, eds., Cultural Literacy and the Idea of General Education , Eighty-Seventh Yearbook of the NSSE, Part II. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988., Thomas S. Popkewitz

Annotation: Discusses power elements in subjects in the general education curriculum, including classroom inequities.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Development, Organization, Design, Curriculum Contexts and Societal Influences
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Critical Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Value Assumptions and Ideologies in Curriculum, Ideology and School Knowledge, Liberal Education/General Education, School Subjects, Curriculum and Politics

Reid, William A., "Democracy, Perfectability, and the Battle of the Books: Thoughts on the Conception of Liberal Education in the Writings of Schwab," Curriculum Inquiry, 10(Fall, 1980), 249-263., William A. Reid

Annotation: Writes of Schwab's views of liberal education in the context of others' views on the topic.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Theorists, Curriculum Policies and Policy Making, Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Historical Inquiry, Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Liberal Education/General Education

Reid, William A., "The Technological Society and the Concept of General Education," pp. 115-131 in Ian Westbury and Alan C. Purves, eds., Cultural Literacy and the Idea of General Education , Eighty-Seventh Yearbook of the NSSE, Part II. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988., William A. Reid

Annotation: Traces the arguments for general education in light of the technological society.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Conceptions and Theories,Curriculum Policies and Policy Making,Curriculum Development, Organization, Design,Curriculum Contexts and Societal Influences
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Conceptual Analysis,Philosophical Inquiry-Ampliative Criticism,Theoretical/Conceptual Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Liberal Education/General Education, Value Assumptions and Ideologies in Curriculum, Content Selection and Organization

Schilling, Marie, "Knowledge and Liberal Education: A Critique of Paul Hirst," Journal of Curriculum Studies, 18(January-March, 1986), 1-16., Marie Schilling

Annotation: Provides a critique of Hirst's Knowledge and the Curriculum (1974) and argues against an epistemic base for liberal education and in favor of a virtue-oriented liberal education.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Conceptual Analysis,Philosophical Inquiry-Ampliative Criticism,Integrative Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Liberal Education/General Education

Schwab, Joseph J., "On Reviving Liberal Education--in the Seventies," pp. 37-48 in Sidney Hooks, Paul Kurtz and Miro Fodorovich, eds., The Philosophy of the Curriculum: The Need for General Education. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1975., Joseph J. Schwab

Annotation: Discusses the arts of access, of communication, of inquiry, of the practical, of the eclectic, of the practical per se (problemation, weighing alternative formulations of the problem, generating and choosing alternative solutions).

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Development, Organization, Design,Curriculum Decision-making Processes
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Conceptual Analysis,Normative Inquiry
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Liberal Education/General Education, Curriculum Deliberation

Schwab, Joseph J., "Testing and the Curriculum," Journal of Curriculum Studies, 21(January-February, 1989), 1-10.*, Joseph J. Schwab

Annotation: Challenges the validity of conventional curriculum testing.

Broad Topical Focus: Curriculum Decision-making Processes, Curriculum Development, Organization, Design
Source Discipline: Curriculum
Mode of Inquiry in the Study: Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay
Type of Study: Single Study
Narrow Topic: Curriculum Standards and Testing, Curriculum Aims and Objectives, Liberal Education/General Education