Nonlinear Optics, Two-Photon Absorption, Organic Molecule, Spectroscopy
This dissertation reports on the investigation of the relationships between molecular structure and two-photon absorption (2PA) properties for a series of polymethine and squaraine molecules. Current and emerging applications exploiting the quadratic dependence upon laser intensity, such as two-photon fluorescence imaging, three-dimensional microfabrication, optical data storage and optical limiting, have motivated researchers to find novel materials exhibiting strong 2PA. Organic materials are promising candidates because their linear and nonlinear optical properties can be optimized for applications by changing their structures through molecular engineering. Polymethine and squaraine dyes are particularly interesting because they are fluorescent and showing large 2PA. We used three independent nonlinear spectroscopic techniques (Z-scan, two-photon fluorescence and white-light continuum pump-probe spectroscopy) to obtain the 2PA spectra revealing 2PA bands, and we confirm the experimental data by comparing the results from the different methods mentioned. By systematically altering the structure of polyemthines and squaraines, we studied the effects of molecular symmetry, strength of donor terminal groups, conjugation length of the chromophore chain, polarity of solvents, and the effects of placing bridge molecules inside the chromophore chain on the 2PA properties. We also compared polymethine, squaraine, croconium and tetraon dyes with the same terminal groups to study the effects of the different additions inserted within the chromophore chain on their optical properties. Near IR absorbing squaraine dyes were experimentally observed to show extremely large 2PA cross sections ([approximately equal to] 30000GM). A simplified three-level model was used to fit the measured 2PA spectra and detailed quantum chemical calculations revealed the reasons for the squaraine to exhibit strong 2PA. In addition, two-photon excitation fluorescence anisotropy spectra were measured through multiple 2PA transitions. A theoretical model based on four-levels with two intermediate states was derived and used for analysis of the experimental data.
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Van Stryland, Eric
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
College of Optics and Photonics
Length of Campus-only Access
Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)
Fu, Jie, "Molecular Structure-nonlinear Optical Property Relationships For A Series Of Polymethine And Squaraine Molecules" (2006). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 1016.