surface scatter, diffraction
Scattering effects from rough surfaces are non-paraxial diffraction phenomena resulting from random phase variations in the reflected wavefront. The ability to predict these effects is important in a variety of applications including x-ray and EUV imaging, the design of stray light rejection systems, and reflection modeling for rendering realistic scenes and animations of physical objects in computer graphics. Rayleigh-Rice (small perturbation method) and Beckmann-Kirchoff (Kirchhoff approximation) theories are commonly used to predict surface scatter effects. In addition, Harvey and Shack developed a linear systems formulation of surface scatter phenomena in which the scattering behavior is characterized by a surface transfer function. This treatment provided insight and understanding not readily gleaned from the two previous theories, and has been incorporated into a variety of computer software packages (ASAP, Zemax, Tracepro). However, smooth surface and paraxial approximations have severely limited the range of applicability of each of the above theoretical treatments. In this dissertation, a linear systems formulation of non-paraxial scalar diffraction theory is first developed and then applied to sinusoidal phase gratings, resulting in diffraction efficiency predictions far more accurate than those provided by classical scalar theories. The application of the theory to these gratings was motivated by the fact that rough surfaces are frequently modeled as a superposition of sinusoidal surfaces of different amplitudes, periods, and orientations. The application of the non-paraxial scalar diffraction theory to surface scatter phenomena resulted first in a modified Beckmann-Kirchhoff surface scattering model, then a generalized Harvey-Shack theory, both of which produce accurate results for rougher surfaces than the Rayleigh-Rice theory and for larger incident and scattering angles than the classical Beckmann-Kirchhoff theory. These new developments enable the analysis and simplify the understanding of wide-angle scattering behavior from rough surfaces illuminated at large incident angles. In addition, they provide an improved BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) model, particularly for the smooth surface inverse scattering problem of determining surface power spectral density (PSD) curves from BRDF measurements.
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Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
College of Optics and Photonics
Length of Campus-only Access
Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)
Krywonos, Andrey, "Predicting Surface Scatter Using A Linear Systems Formulation Of Non-paraxial Scalar Diffraction" (2006). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 1086.