Scattering, Polarization, Diffusion, Singularities
In recent years a resurgence of interest in wave singularities (of which optical vortices are a prominent example), light angular momentum and the relations between them has occurred. Many applications in various areas of linear and non-linear optics have been based on studying effects related to angular momentum and optical vortices. This dissertation examines the use of such wave singularities for studying the light propagation in highly inhomogeneous media and the relationship to angular momentum transfer. Angular momentum carried by light can be, in many cases, divided in two terms. The first one relates to the polarization of light and can be associated, in the quantum description, to the spin of a photon. The second is determined by the electromagnetic field distribution and, in analogy to atomic physics, is associated with the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a photon. Under the paraxial approximation appropriate for the case of beam propagation, the two terms do not couple. However, each of them can be modified by the interaction with different media in which the light propagates through processes which involve angular momentum exchange. The decoupling of spin and orbital parts of light angular momentum can not, in general, be assumed for non paraxial propagation in turbid media, especially when backscattering is concerned. In Chapter 3 of this dissertation, scattering effects on angular momentum of light are discussed both for the single and multiple scattering processes. It is demonstrated for the first time that scattering from a spherically symmetric scattering potential, couples the spin and the OAM such that the total angular momentum flux density in conserved in every direction. Remarkably, the conservation of angular momentum occurs also for some classes of multiple scattering trajectories and this phenomenon manifests itself in ubiquitous polarization patterns observed in back-scattering from turbid media. It is newly shown in this dissertation that the polarization patterns a result of OAM carrying optical vortices which have a geometrical origin. These geometrical phase vortices are analyzed using the helicity space approach for optical geometrical phase (Berry phase). This approach, introduced in the con- text of random media, elucidates several aspects specific to propagation in helicity preserving and non-preserving scattering trajectories. Another aspect of singular waves interaction with turbid media relates to singularities embedded in the incident waves. Chapter 4 of the dissertation discusses how the phase distribution associated with an optical vortex leads to changes in the spatial correlations of the electromagnetic field. This change can be used to control the properties of the effect of enhanced backscattering in a way which allows inferring the optical properties of the medium. A detailed theoretical and experimental study of this effect is presented here for the first time for both double-pass geometries and diffusive media. It is also demonstrated that this novel experimental technique can be used to determine the optical properties of turbid media and, moreover, it permits to sense the depth of reflective inclusions in opaque media. When considering a regime of weakly inhomogeneous media, the paraxial approximation is still valid and therefore the spin and OAM do not couple. If, In addition, the medium is optically isotropic then the polarization is not affected. However, when the medium is non-axially symmetric for any specific realization, the OAM does change as a result of interaction with the medium. This effect can be studied using a newly developed method of coherent modes coupling which is presented in Chapter 5. This approach allows studying the power spread across propagating modes which carry different orbital angular momentum. The powerful concept of coherent modes coupling can be applied to fully coherent, fully polarized sources as well to partially coherent, partially polarized ones. An example of this scattering regime is atmospheric turbulence and the propagation through turbulence is thoroughly examined in Chapter 5. The results included in this dissertation are of fundamental relevance for a variety of applications which involves probing different types of random media. Such applications include remote sensing in atmospheric and maritime environments, optical techniques for biomedical diagnostics, optical characterization procedures in material sciences and others.
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Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
College of Optics and Photonics
Length of Campus-only Access
Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)
Schwartz, Chaim, "Probing Random Media With Singular Waves" (2006). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 1087.