Blood volume, Extracellular fluid, Hemodialysis -- Patients, Hypertension


Cardiovascular disease, including hypertension, accounts for almost 50% of the deaths in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis (HD) yet hypertension remains very poorly controlled in this population. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively compare control of hypertension in hemodialysis (HD) patients when extracellular volume (ECV) was assessed and managed by clinical parameters and physical assessment data alone with control of hypertension when data from blood volume monitoring (BVM) technology was also used to assess and manage ECV in a freestanding outpatient hemodialysis unit. The main cause of hypertension in the ESRD population has been identified as increased ECV most likely secondary to increased interdialytic weight gain and failure to attain and maintain patient’s dry weight. HD nurses often employ clinical parameters along with physical examination to determine a patient’s pre, intra, and post dialytic fluid status and this approach can have a high index of error. BVM technology is being used in many hemodialysis units to assist with assessment of ECV. A comparative retrospective chart review was used to collect data for this project. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was employed to answer the question:“Are hypertensive hemodialysis patients who dialyze in a freestanding dialysis unit, where BVM technology is utilized, more likely to be normotensive as defined by a pre dialysis blood pressure of less than 140/90 and post dialysis blood pressure less than 130/80”? A pilot study was conducted to determine if the patient population and data were available in existing patient records for extrapolation. Approval for the study was obtained from the University IRB. A convenience sample was obtained from the records of patients meeting the inclusion criteria. Variables were measured and analyzed using iv descriptive statistics such as sampled paired T-test to compare pre and post BVM systolic, diastolic blood pressures, intradialytic weight gain, serum Albumin and sodium levels, and hemoglobin. A p-value of 0.05 was assigned for statistical significance. Data analysis showed there were statisticaly significant differences in the pre dialysis systolic blood pressure, post BVM, and the serum sodium pre and post BVM when the two groups were compared These statistically significant findings support a correlation between reduction in the HD patient’s ECV and improved blood pressure control. The reduction of pre-dialysis SBP was significant because many patients on hemodialysis have systolic hypertension that may or may not coexist with diastolic hypertension. The findings of this study may be used to formulate a protocol to be used in the HD units where the BVM is available. The protocol would rely on accurate nursing assessment of clinical parameters, patient verbalizations of symptoms, and the routine use of the BVM in order to continuously assess the patient’s fluid status. Future research recommendations include conducting the study in a population closer to the national sample, a study where glucose readings and /or hemoglobin A1C levels are measured to assess the impact of glucose on ECV, and which antihypertensive class of medication works best with BVM technology to effectively manage hypertension in this population.


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Graduation Date





Wink, Diane


Doctor of Nursing Practice (D.N.P.)


College of Nursing

Degree Program

Nursing Practice








Release Date

January 2016

Length of Campus-only Access

5 years

Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)


Dissertations, Academic -- Nursing, Nursing -- Dissertations, Academic

Included in

Nursing Commons