Ultrafiltration, uf, chemically enhanced backwash, ceb, pilot, transmembrane pressure, tmp, balance, fouling, optimization, utilization, silicon dioxide, powdered activated carbon, pac, enhancement, pre coat, support, layer
This dissertation reports on research related to ultrafiltration (UF) membranes in drinking water applications. A pilot-scale investigation identified seasonal surface water quality impacts on UF performance and resulted in the development of a dynamic chemically enhanced backwash protocol for fouling management. Subsequent analysis of UF process data revealed limitations with the use of specific flux, transmembrane pressure (TMP), and other normalization techniques for assessing UF process fouling. A new TMP balance approach is presented that identifies the pressure contribution of membrane fouling and structural changes, enables direct process performance comparisons at different operating fluxes, and distinguishes between physically and chemically unresolved fouling. In addition to the TMP balance, a five component optimization approach is presented for the systematic improvement of UF processes on the basis of TMP variations. Terms are defined for assessing process event performance, a new process utilization term is presented to benchmark UF productivity, and new measures for evaluating maintenance procedures are discussed. Using these tools, a correlation between process utilization and operating pressures was established and a sustainable process utilization of 93.5% was achieved. UF process capabilities may be further enhanced by pre-coating media onto the membrane surface. Silicon dioxide (SiO2) and powdered activated carbon (PAC) are evaluated as precoating materials, and the applicability of the TMP balance for assessing pre-coated membrane performance is demonstrated. The first use of SiO2 as a support layer for PAC in a membrane pre-coating application is presented at the laboratory-scale. SiO2-PAC pre-coatings successfully reduced physically unresolved fouling and enhanced UF membrane organics removal capabilities.
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
College of Engineering and Computer Science
Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering
Length of Campus-only Access
Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)
Dissertations, Academic -- Engineering and Computer Science, Engineering and Computer Science -- Dissertations, Academic
Boyd, Christopher, "Assessment, Optimization, And Enhancement Of Ultrafiltration (uf) Membrane Processes In Potable Water Treatment" (2013). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 2712.