national culture, culturally contingent leadership, Least Preferred Coworker, Hofstede, Fiedler, Triandis, contingency theory, economics faculty, Germany, United States


This dissertation addressed the need for empirical research on the leadership of multinational virtual teams (Davis & Bryant, 2003; Early & Gibson, 2002; Ilgen, Lepine, and Hollenbeck, 1997; Prieto & Arias, 1997), particularly in the field of educational leadership (Cheng, 1995). This was accomplished through the development of a model based upon the cultural values discovered through the use of Hofstede's (1980, 2001) Values Survey Module 94 (VSM 94). As workers will bring values from their own cultures to the multinational workplace (Bochner & Hesketh, 1994), research was conducted to determine the cultural values of economics professors in the United States and Germany in order to formulate a cultural contingent leadership model based on Triandis' (1993) adaptation of Fiedler's (1967) contingency theory. Given a total response from 194 U.S. and German economics professors, it was discovered that faculty in both the United States and Germany had values that differed significantly from those that Hofstede discovered for his IBM employee samples in four out of five dimensions. However, it was found that the values for the U.S. and German faculties were a close replication of Hoppe's (1990) findings which were based on a sample that was similar to the economics faculties in both occupation and education. These findings add a cautionary note to the recommendation by Hofstede and Peterson (2000) that existing cultural values can be used by cultural researchers: Previous cultural value data can be used if the samples are closely matched to the previous samples in both nationality as well as educational and occupational background. The research thus indicated that differences in national culture, as measured by Hofstede's (1980, 2001) cultural dimensions, still exist. In addition, a direct comparison of the cultural values between the two faculties indicated that the U.S. and German economics faculties differed significantly in two of Hofstede's cultural dimensions, individualism and collectivism and masculinity and femininity. The two samples were not significantly different in the cultural dimensions of power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and long term orientation. Using the Triandis (1993) approach, application of the research results to Fiedler's (1967) LPC model indicated that a relationship oriented leader would be an in-match leader for a group of U.S. and German higher education economics faculty. This result was contingent upon the cultural values discovered for the U.S. and German faculties who would be involved in an endeavor with situational variables similar to that which would be found in an international joint venture to offer online distance economics education to students in a developing country.


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Graduation Date





House, Jess


Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)


College of Education


Educational Research, Technology and Leadership

Degree Program

Educational Leadership








Release Date

May 2007

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)