all-optical regeneration, phase-shift keying, phase regeneration, amplitude regeneration, phase-sensitive amplification, parametric amplification


All-optical signal processing techniques for phase-shift keyed (PSK) systems were developed theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. Nonlinear optical effects in fibers, in particular four-wave mixing (FWM) that occurs via the ultra-fast Kerr nonlinearity, offer a flexible framework within which numerous signal processing functions can be accomplished. This research has focused on the regenerative capabilities of various FWM configurations in the context of processing PSK signals. Phase-preserving amplitude regeneration, phase regeneration, and phase-regenerative wavelength conversion are analyzed and demonstrated experimentally. The single-pump phase-conjugation process was used to regenerate RZ-DPSK pulse amplitudes with different input noise distributions, and the impact on output phase characteristics was studied. Experiments revealed a limited range over which amplitude noise could effectively be suppressed without introduction of phase noise, particularly for signals with intensity pattern effects. Phase regeneration requires use of phase-sensitive amplification (PSA), which occurs in nonlinear interferometers when the pump and signal frequencies are degenerate (NI-PSA), or in fiber directly through single-stage (degenerate) or cascaded (non-degenerate) FWM processes. A PSA based on a Sagnac interferometer provided the first experimental demonstration of DPSK phase and amplitude regeneration. The phase-regenerative capabilities of the NI-PSA are limited in practice by intrinsic noise conversion (amplitude to phase noise) and to a lesser extent by the requirement to modulate the pump wave to suppress stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). These limitations are relaxed in novel materials with higher SBS thresholds and nonlinearities. Degenerate FWM provides PSA in a traveling-wave configuration that intrinsically suppresses the noise conversion affecting the NI-PSA, while providing stronger phase-matched gain. Experiments confirmed superior phase-regenerative behavior to the NI-PSA with simultaneous reduction of amplitude noise for NRZ-DPSK signals. Phase-regenerative wavelength conversion (PR-WC) provides the regenerative properties of PSA at a new wavelength, and was proposed and demonstrated for the first time in this research. The parallel implementation of two FWM processes, phase-conjugation and frequency conversion, provides two idlers which exhibit interesting and useful regenerative properties. These were investigated theoretically and experimentally. Ideal phase-regenerative behavior is predicted when the contributing FWM processes are equally phase-matched, which can be maintained over any interaction length or wavelength shift provided the pump powers are properly adjusted. Depleted-pump regime PR-WC provides simultaneous phase and amplitude regeneration. Experiments confirmed regenerative behavior for wavelength shifts of the idlers up to 5 nm. Two techniques for phase regeneration of 4-level PSK signals were developed and evaluated. The first is based on parallel operation of PSAs suitable for processing 2-level PSK signals, where phase projection and regeneration are combined to recover the input data. Analysis of this scheme outlined the conditions required for effective phase regeneration and for practical implementation using known PSAs. A novel process based on FWM (parallel phase-conjugation followed by PSA) was developed and analyzed, and demonstrated using numerical simulations. These studies provide a basis for further work in this area.


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Graduation Date





Li, Guifang


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Optics and Photonics


Optics and Photonics

Degree Program









Release Date

November 2007

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)