Ferrate, 2, 4-Dinitrophenol


Ferrate (molecular formula, FeVIO42-) has been studied increasingly since the 1970s as a disinfectant and coagulant for domestic wastewater and also as an oxidant for industrial wastewaters (Murmann and Roginson, 1974, Gilbert et al., 1978, Kazama, 1994, Jiang et al., 2002, and Sharmaet al., 2005). This research was performed to explore whether ferrate could possibly be used as chemical treatment for industrial wastewaters from plastic, chemical, dye, soap, and wood stain producing plants that contain 2, 4-Dinitrophenol (DNP). DNP is listed on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). This list includes compounds which are not currently regulated at the national level, but there is a growing concern for the harm they may cause to the environment. Therefore, the EPA prioritizes these compounds and conducts extensive research to determine if these compounds should be regulated (USEPA, 2005). The effects of Ferrate on DNP were evaluated during these experiments. The effect of various dosages of Ferrate and different pH values was monitored over 17 minutes using UV 254 to determine the extent of oxidation of 300 mg L-1 DNP. Removal of DNP at all pHs and dosages was noted, however, a pH of 4 and a molar ratio of 14: 1 (Ferrate to DNP) removed the highest percentage of DNP at 87.3. The by-products of the 3.5 and 14: 1 molar ratio of Ferrate to DNP reactions at a pH of 4 and their toxicity were determined by measuring biochemical oxygen demand 5 day (BOD5), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chlorine residual and chemical oxygen demand (COD), and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. The BOD5 indicated toxicity, either from the residual chlorine or the organisms used for seeding not being acclimated to DNP and by-products. DOC of the 3.5 : 1 molar ratio was higher than calculated values indicating more ring breakage than was originally measured by UV 254. DOC of the 14: 1 molar ratio experiment was lower than calculated values, which indicated human error in measuring the DNP concentration. The chlorine residual was high for both experiments, 112 and 594 mg L-1, for the 3.5 and 14: 1 molar ratios, respectively. COD was unable to be measured due to chloride interference. The GC/MS data showed several chlorine-substituted benzene rings as well as carbon tetrachloride for the 3.5:1 molar ratio DNP experiments. The 14:1 GC/MS data indicated much more ring breakage with carbon tetrachloride, a substituted butane chain, many unknown straight chain chlorinated compounds and dichloro-pentane isomers as by-products.


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Graduation Date



Reinhart, Debra


Master of Science (M.S.)


College of Engineering and Computer Science


Civil and Environmental Engineering

Degree Program

Environmental Engineering








Release Date

November 2013

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Masters Thesis (Open Access)