Emergency Evacuation, Route Planning, Integer Linear Programming, Maximum Flow


Throughout United States and world history, disasters have caused not only significant loss of life, property but also enormous financial loss. The tsunami that occurred on December 26, 2004 is a telling example of the devastation that can occur unexpectedly. This unexpected natural event never happened before in this area. In addition, there was a lack of an emergency response plan for events of that magnitude. Therefore, this event resulted not only in a natural catastrophe for the people of South and Southeast Asia, but it is also considered one of the greatest natural disasters in world history. After the giant wave dissipated, there were more than 230,000 people dead and more than US$10 billion in property damage and loss. Another significant event was the terrorist incident on September 11, 2001 (commonly referred to as 9/11) in United States. This event was unexpected and an unnatural, i.e., man-made event. It resulted in approximately 3,000 lives lost and about US$21 billion in property damage. These and other unexpected (or unanticipated) events give emergency management officials short- or no-notice to prevent or respond to the situation. These and other facts motivate the need for better emergency evacuation route planning (EERP) approaches in order to minimize the loss of human lives and property in short- or no-notice emergency situations. This research considers aspects of evacuation routing that have received little attention in research and, more importantly, in practice. Previous EERP models only either consider unidirectional evacuee flow from the source of a hazard to destinations of safety or unidirectional emergency first responder flow to the hazard source. However, in real-life emergency situations, these heterogeneous, incompatible flows occur simultaneously over a bi-directional capacitated lane-based travel network, especially in short- and no-notice emergencies. After presenting a review of the work related to the multiple flow EERP problem, mathematical formulations are presented for the EERP problem where the objective for each problem is to identify an evacuation routing plan (i.e., a traffic flow schedule) that maximizes evacuee and responder flow and minimizes network clearance time of both types of flow. In addition, we integrate the general human response behavior flow pattern, where the cumulative flow behavior follows different degrees of an S-shaped curve depending upon the level of the evacuation order. We extend the analysis to consider potential traffic flow conflicts between the two types of flow under these conditions. A conflict occurs when flow of different types occupy a roadway segment at the same time. Further, with different degrees of flow movement flow for both evacuee and responder flow, the identification of points of flow congestion on the roadway segments that occur within the transportation network is investigated.


If this is your thesis or dissertation, and want to learn how to access it or for more information about readership statistics, contact us at

Graduation Date



Geiger, Christopher


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Engineering and Computer Science


Industrial Engineering and Management Systems

Degree Program

Industrial Engineering








Release Date

May 2009

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)