Keywords

Post-treatment of Desalinated water, Iodide concentration in permeate, Reverse Osmosis post-treatment, Nanofiltration post-treatment, Iodide concentration is RO and NF permeate

Abstract

The use of brackish water and seawater desalination for augmenting potable water supplies has focused primarily on pre-treatment, process optimization, energy efficiency, and concentrate management. Much less has been documented regarding the impact of post-treatment requirements with respect to distribution system. The goals of this study were to review current literature on post-treatment of permeate water, use survey questionnaires to gather information on post-treatment water quality characteristics, gather operation information, review general capital and maintenance cost, and identify appropriate "lessons learned" with regards to post-treatment from water purveyors participating in the Project. A workshop was organized where experts from across the United States, Europe and the Caribbean active in brackish and seawater desalination, gathered to share technical knowledge regarding post-treatment stabilization, identify solutions for utilities experiencing problems with post-treatment, note lessons learned, and develop desalination water post-treatment guidelines. In addition, based on initial workshop discussions, the iodide content of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration permeate from two seawater desalination facilities was determined. The literature review identified that stabilization and disinfection are required desalination post-treatment processes, and typically are considerations when considering 1) blending, 2) re-mineralization, 3) disinfection, and 4) materials used for storage and transport of product water. Addition of chemicals can effectively achieve post-treatment goals although considerations relating to the quality of the chemical, dosage rates, and possible chemical reactions, such as possible formation of disinfection by-products, should be monitored and studied. The survey gathered information on brackish water and seawater desalination facilities with specific regards to their post-treatment operations. The information obtained was divided into seven sections 1) general desalination facility information, 2) plant characteristics with schematics, 3) post-treatment water quality, 4) permeate, blend, and point of entry quality, 5) post-treatment operation, 6) operation and maintenance costs, 7) and lessons learned. A major consideration obtained from the survey was that facilities should conduct post-treatment pilot studies in order to identify operational problems that may impact distributions systems prior to designing the plant. Effective design and regulation considerations will limit issues with permitting for the facility. The expert workshop identified fourteen priority issues pertaining to post-treatment. Priority issues were relating to post-treatment stabilization of permeate water, corrosion control, disinfection and the challenges relating to disinfection by-product (DBP) formation, water quality goals, blending, and the importance of informing the general public. For each priority issues guidelines/recommendations were developed for how facilities can effectively manage such issues if they arise. One of the key priorities identified in the workshop was related to blending of permeate and formation of DBPs. However, it was identified in the workshop that the impact of iodide on iodinated-DBP formation was unknown. Consequently, screening evaluations using a laboratory catalytic reduction method to determine iodide concentrations in the permeate of two of the workshop participants: Tampa Bay and Long Beach seawater desalination facilities. It was found that the permeate did contain iodide, although at levels near the detection limit of the analytical method (8 [micro]g/L).

Notes

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Graduation Date

2009

Advisor

Duranceau , Steven

Degree

Master of Science in Environmental Engineering (M.S.Env.E.)

College

College of Engineering and Computer Science

Department

Civil and Environmental Engineering

Degree Program

Environmental Engineering

Format

application/pdf

Identifier

CFE0002804

URL

http://purl.fcla.edu/fcla/etd/CFE0002804

Language

English

Release Date

July 2010

Length of Campus-only Access

None

Access Status

Masters Thesis (Open Access)

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