Model transferability, developing countries, urban roadway segments, urban roadway intersections, safety performance functions, calibration factors, negative binomial model, highway safety manual
Many developing countries have witnessed fast and rapid growth in the last two decades due to the high development rate of economic activity in these countries. Many transportation projects have been constructed. In the same time both population growth and vehicle ownership rate increased; resulting in increasing levels of road crashes. Road traffic crashes in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is considered a serious problem that has deep effects on GCC's population as well as on the national productivity through the loss of lives, injuries, property damage and the loss of valuable resources. From a recent statistical study of traffic crashes in Oman, it was found that in 2013 there were 7,829 crashes occurred for a total of 1,082,996 registered vehicles. These crashes have resulted in 913, 5591, and 1481 fatal, injury and property damage only crashes, respectively (Directorate General of Traffic, 2014), which is considered high rates of fatalities and injuries compared to other more developed countries. This illustrates the seriousness and dangerousness of the safety situation in GCC countries and Oman particularly. Thus, there is an urgent need to alleviate the Severity of the traffic safety problem in GCC which in turn will set a prime example for other developing countries that face similar problems. Two main data sources from Riyadh, the capital city of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and Muscat, the capital city of Sultanate of Oman have been obtained, processed, and utilized in this study. The Riyadh collision and traffic data for this study were obtained in the form of crash database and GIS maps from two main sources: the Higher Commission for the Development of Riyadh (HCDR) and Riyadh Traffic Department (RTD). The Muscat collision and traffic data were obtained from two main sources: the Muscat Municipality (MM) and Royal Oman Police, Directorate General of Traffic (DGC). Since the ARC GIS is still not used for traffic crash geocoding in Oman, the crash data used in the analysis were extracted manually from the filing system in the DGC. Due to the fact that not all developing countries highway agencies possess sufficient crash data that enable the development of robust models, this problem gives rise to the interest of transferability of many of the models and tools developed in the US and other developed nations. The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) is a prime and comprehensive resource recently developed in the US that would have substantial impact if researchers are able to transfer its models to other similar environment in GCC. It would save time, effort, and money. The first edition of the HSM provides a number of safety performance functions (SPFs), which can be used to predict collisions on a roadway network. This dissertation examined the Transferability of HSM SPFs and developing new local models for Riyadh and Muscat. In this study, first, calibration of the HSM SPFs for Urban Four-lane divided roadway segments (U4D) with angle parking in Riyadh and the development of new SPFs were examined. The study calibrates the HSM SPFs using HSM default Crash Modification Factors (CMFs), then new local CMFs is proposed using cross-sectional method, which treats the estimation of calibration factors using fatal and injury data. In addition, new forms for specific SPFs are further evaluated to identify the best model using the Poisson-Gamma regression technique. To investigate how well the safety performance model fits the data set, several performance measures were examined. The performance measures summarize the differences between the observed and predicted values from related SPFs. Results indicate that the jurisdiction-specific SPFs provided the best fit of the data used in this study, and would be the best SPFs for predicting severe collisions in the City of Riyadh. The study finds that the HSM calibration using Riyadh local CMFs outperforms the calibration method using the HSM default values. The HSM calibration application for Riyadh crash conditions highlights the importance to address variability in reporting thresholds. One of the findings of this research is that, while the medians in this study have oversize widths ranging from 16ft-70ft, median width has insignificant effect on fatal and injury crashes. At the same time the frequent angle parking in Riyadh urban road networks seems to increase the fatal and injury collisions by 52 percent. On the other hand, this dissertation examined the calibration of the HSM SPFs for Urban intersections in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and the development of new set of models using three year of collision data (2004-2006) from the city of Riyadh. Three intersection categories were investigated: 3-leg signalized, 4-leg signalized, and 3-leg unsignalized. In addition, new forms for specific SPFs are further evaluated to identify the best model using the Poisson-Gamma regression technique. Results indicate that the new local developed SPFs provided the best fit of the data used in this study, and would be the best SPFs for predicting severe crashes at urban intersections in the City of Riyadh Moreover, this study examined the calibration of the HSM SPFs for Fatal and Injury (FI), Property Damage Only (PDO) and total crashes for Urban Four-lane divided roadway segments (U4D) in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman and the development of new SPFs. This study first calibrates the HSM SPFs using the HSM methodology, and then new forms for specific SPFs are further evaluated for Muscat's urban roads to identify the best model. Finally, Riyadh fatal and injury model were validated using Muscat FI dataset. Comparisons across the models indicate that HSM calibrated models are superior with a better model fit and would be the best SPFs for predicting collisions in the City of Muscat. The best developed collision model describes the mean crash frequency as a function of natural logarithm of the annual average daily traffic, segment length, and speed limit. The study finds that the differences in road geometric design features and FI collision characteristics between Riyadh and Muscat resulted in an un-transferable Riyadh crash prediction model. Overall, this study lays an important foundation towards the implementation of HSM methods in multiple cities (Riyadh and Muscat), and could help their transportation officials to make informed decisions regarding road safety programs. The implications of the results are extendible to other cities and countries and the region, and perhaps other developing countries as well.
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Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
College of Engineering and Computer Science
Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering
Length of Campus-only Access
Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)
Dissertations, Academic -- Engineering and Computer Science; Engineering and Computer Science -- Dissertations, Academic
Al, Kaaf, Khalid, "Transferability and Calibration of the Highway Safety Manual Performance Functions and Development of New Models for Urban four-lane Divided Roads" (2014). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 4773.