three-body resonances, ultracold quantum gas, few-body processes, many-body processes
We are developing theoretical and computational methods to study two related three-body processes in ultracold quantum gases: three-body resonances and three-body recombination. Three-body recombination causes the ultracold gas to heat up and atoms to leave the trap where they are confined. Therefore, it is an undesirable effect in the process of forming ultracold quantum gases. Metastable three-body states (resonances) are formed in the ultracold gas. When decaying they also give additional kinetic energy to the gas, that leads to the heating too. In addition, a reliable method to obtain three-body resonances would be useful in a number of problems in other fields of physics, for example, in models of metastable nuclei or to study dissociative recombination of H3 +. Our project consists of employing computer modeling to develop a method to obtain three-body resonances. The method uses a novel two-step diagonalization approach to solve the three-body Schrödinger equation. The approach employs the SVD method of Tolstikhin et al. coupled with a complex absorbing potential. We tested this method on a model system of three identical bosons with nucleon mass and compared it to the results of a previous study. This model can be employed to understand the 3He nucleus . We found one three-body bound state and four resonances. We are also studying Efimov resonances using a 4He-based model. In a system of identical spinless bosons, Efimov states are a series of loosely bound three-body states which begin to appear as the energy of the two-body bound state approaches zero . Although they were predicted 35 years ago, recent evidence of Efimov states found by Kraemer et al. in a gas of ultracold Cs atoms has sparked great interest by theorists and experimentalists. Efimov resonances are a kind of pre-dissociated Efimov trimer. To search for Efimov resonances we tune the diatom interaction potential, V(r): V(r) → λV(r) as Esry et al. did . We calculated the first two values of λ for which there is a "condensation" (infinite number) of Efimov states. They are λEfimov1 = 0.9765 and λEfimov2 = 6.834. We performed calculations for λ = 2.4, but found no evidence of Efimov resonances. For future work we plan to work with λ ≈ 4 and λ ≈ λEfimov2 where we might see d-wave and higher l-wave Efimov resonances. There is also a many-body project that forms part of this thesis and consists of a direct diagonalization of the Bogolyubov Hamiltonian, which describes elementary excitations of a gas of bosons interacting through a pairwise interaction. We would like to reproduce the corresponding energy spectrum. So far we have performed several convergence tests, but have not observed the desired energy spectrum. We show preliminary results.
Master of Science (M.S.)
College of Sciences
Length of Campus-only Access
Masters Thesis (Open Access)
Blandon, Juan, "Development Of Theoretical And Computational Methods For Few-body Processes In Ultracold Quantum Gases" (2006). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 994.