Title

What to expect from immersive virtual environment exposure: Influences of gender, body mass index, and past experience

Authors

Authors

K. M. Stanney; K. S. Hale; I. Nahmens;R. S. Kennedy

Abbreviated Journal Title

Hum. Factors

Keywords

MOTION SICKNESS; SIMULATOR SICKNESS; SUSCEPTIBILITY; ADAPTATION; SYMPTOMS; REALITY; WEIGHT; HEIGHT; FAT; Behavioral Sciences; Engineering, Industrial; Ergonomics; Psychology, ; Applied; Psychology

Abstract

For those interested in using head-coupled PC-based immersive virtual environment (VE) technology to train, entertain, or inform, it is essential to understand the effects this technology has on its users. This study investigated potential adverse effects, including the sickness associated with exposure and extreme responses (emesis, flashbacks). Participants were exposed to a VE for 15 to 60 min, with either complete or streamlined navigational control and simple or complex scenes, after which time measures of sickness were obtained. More than 80% of participants experienced nausea, oculomotor disturbances, and/or disorientation, with disorientation potentially lasting >24 hr. Of the participants, 12.9% prematurely ended their exposure because of adverse effects; of these, 9.2% experienced an emetic response, whereas only 1.2% of all participants experienced emesis. The results indicate that designers may be able to reduce these rates by limiting exposure duration and reducing the degrees of freedom of the user's navigational control. Results from gender, body mass, and past experience comparisons indicated it may be possible to identify those who will experience adverse effects attributable to exposure and warn such individuals. Applications for this research include military, entertainment, and any other interactive systems for which designers seek to avoid adverse effects associated with exposure.

Journal Title

Human Factors

Volume

45

Issue/Number

3

Publication Date

1-1-2003

Document Type

Article

Language

English

First Page

504

Last Page

520

WOS Identifier

WOS:000187038200012

ISSN

0018-7208

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