Chloroplast genetic engineering: Recent advances and future perspectives
Abbreviated Journal Title
Crit. Rev. Plant Sci.
plastid genomics; gene containment; GM crops; biopharmaceuticals; recombinant proteins; bioreactors; HIGH-VELOCITY MICROPROJECTILES; ENHANCED DISEASE RESISTANCE; GREEN; FLUORESCENT PROTEIN; BETA-ALANINE BETAINE; HUMAN SERUM-ALBUMIN; B; SURFACE-ANTIGEN; CHOLINE-O-SULFATE; TRANSGENIC TOBACCO; PLASTID GENOME; CYTOPLASMIC INHERITANCE; Plant Sciences
Chloroplast genetic engineering offers a number of unique advantages, including a high-level of transgene expression, multi-gene engineering in a single transformation event, transgene containment via maternal inheritance, lack of gene silencing, position an pleiotropic effects, and undesirable foreign DNA. Thus far, over forty transgenes have been stably integrated and expressed via the tobacco chloroplast genome to confer important agronomic traits, as well as express industrially valuable biomaterials and therapeutic proteins. The hyperexpression of recombinant proteins within plastid engineered systems offers a cost effective solution for using plants as bioreactors. Additionally, the presence of chaperones and enzymes within the chloroplast help to assemble complex multisubunit proteins and correctly fold proteins containing disulfide bonds, thereby drastically reducing the costs of in vitro processing. Oral delivery of vaccine antigens against cholera, tetanus, anthrax, plague, and canine parvovirus are made possible because of the high expression levels and antibiotic-free selection systems available in plastid transformation systems. Plastid genetic engineering also has become a powerful tool for basic research in plastid biogenesis and function. This approach has helped to unveil a wealth of information about plastid DNA replication origins, intron maturases, translation elements and proteolysis, import of proteins and several other processes. Although many successful examples of plastid engineering have set a foundation for various future applications, this technology has not been extended to many of the major crops. Highly efficient plastid transformation has been recently accomplished via somatic embryogenesis using species-specific chloroplast vectors in soybean, carrot, and cotton. Transgenic carrots were able to withstand salt concentrations that only halophytes could tolerate; more than twice the effectiveness of other engineering attempts. Recent advances in plastid engineering provide an efficient platform for the production of therapeutic proteins, vaccines, and biomaterials using an environmentally friendly approach. This review takes an in-depth look into the state of the art in plastid engineering and offers directions for further research and development.
Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences
"Chloroplast genetic engineering: Recent advances and future perspectives" (2005). Faculty Bibliography 2000s. 5228.