Title

Mechanisms of room temperature metastable tetragonal phase stabilisation in zirconia

Authors

Authors

S. Shukla;S. Seal

Comments

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Abbreviated Journal Title

Int. Mater. Rev.

Keywords

zirconia; nanocrystalline; tetragonal phase; phase stabilisation; mechanisms; X-RAY-ABSORPTION; HIGH-PRESSURE PHASE; SOL-GEL SYNTHESIS; NANOCRYSTALLINE ZIRCONIA; OXYGEN VACANCIES; HOMOGENEOUS PRECIPITATION; THERMAL-DECOMPOSITION; CRYSTALLITE GROWTH; CUBIC ZIRCONIA; ZRO2 POWDER; Materials Science, Multidisciplinary

Abstract

Mechanisms of tetragonal phase stabilisation, at room temperature, in nanocrystalline (<100 nm), submicrometre-sized (100 nm(-1) μm), and bulk zirconia (ZrO2) (>1 mum) are reviewed in detail. The merits, demerits and scope of each individual model are outlined. The analysis of the literature shows that, although the mechanism of tetragonal phase stabilisation in bulk ZrO2 is well understood, the room temperature tetragonal phase stabilisation mechanism in undoped, nanocrystalline ZrO2 is controversial. Various proposed models, based on surface energy (nanocrystallite size), strain energy, internal and external hydrostatic pressure, structural similarities, foreign surface oxides, anionic impurities, water vapour and lattice defects (oxygen ion vacancies), are discussed in detail. It is proposed that generation of excess oxygen ion vacancies within the nanocrystalline ZrO2 is primarily responsible for the room temperature tetragonal phase stabilisation, below a critical size. Hence, the mechanism of tetragonal phase stabilisation in nanocrystalline ZrO2 appears to be the same as that in doped ZrO2 (at room temperature) and undoped ZrO2 (at higher temperature).

Journal Title

International Materials Reviews

Volume

50

Issue/Number

1

Publication Date

1-1-2005

Document Type

Review

Language

English

First Page

45

Last Page

64

WOS Identifier

WOS:000227025300003

ISSN

0950-6608

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