ACE ID genotype and the muscle strength and size response to unilateral resistance training
Abbreviated Journal Title
Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.
exercise; genetics; strength training; quantitative trait loci; renin-angiotensin system; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING-ENZYME; INSERTION/DELETION POLYMORPHISM; ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE; PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE; MUSCULAR STRENGTH; LINKAGE; ANALYSIS; SKELETAL-MUSCLE; CROSS-EDUCATION; GENE; WOMEN; Sport Sciences
Purpose: To examine associations among the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism and the :response to a 12-wk (2 d(.)wk(-1)) unilateral, upper-arm resistance training (RT) program in the trained (T, nondominant) and untrained (UT, dominant) arms. Methods: Subjects were 631 (mean +/- SEM, 24.2 +/- 0.2 yr) white (80%) men (42%) and women (58%). The ACE ID genotype was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with frequencies of 23.1, 46.1, and 30.8% for ACE II, ID, and DD, respectively (chi(2) = 1.688, P = 0.430). Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and one-repetition maximum (1RM) assessed peak elbow flexor muscle strength. Magnetic resonance imaging measured biceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Multiple variable and repeated-measures ANCOVA tested whether muscle strength and size differed at baseline and pre- to post-RT among T and UT and ACE ID genotype. Results: Baseline muscle strength and size were greater in UT than T (P < 0.001) and did not differ among ACE ID genotype in either arm (P >= 0.05). In T, MVC increases were greater for ACE II/ID (22%) than DD (17%) (P < 0.05), whereas 1RM (51%) and CSA (19%) gains were not different among ACE ID genotype pre- to post-RT (P >= 0.05). In UT, MVC increased among ACE II/ID (7%) (P < 0.001) but was similar among ACE DD (2%) pre- to post-RT (P > 0.05). In UT, 1RM (11%) and CSA (2%) increases were greater for ACE DD/ID than ACE 11 (1RM, 7%; CSA, -0.1%) (P < 0.05). ACE ID genotype explained approximately 1% of the MVC response to RT in T and approximately 2% of MVC, 2% of 1RM, and 4% of CSA response in UT (P < 0.05). Conclusion: ACE ID genotype is associated with the contralateral effects of unilateral RT, perhaps more so than with the muscle strength and size adaptations that result from RT.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
"ACE ID genotype and the muscle strength and size response to unilateral resistance training" (2006). Faculty Bibliography 2000s. 7881.