Title

ACE ID genotype and the muscle strength and size response to unilateral resistance training

Authors

Authors

L. S. Pescatello; M. A. Kostek; H. Gordish-Dressman; P. D. Thompson; R. L. Seip; T. B. Price; T. J. Angelopoulos; P. M. Clarkson; P. M. Gordon; N. M. Moyna; P. S. Visich; R. F. Zoeller; J. M. Devaney;E. P. Hoffman

Comments

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Abbreviated Journal Title

Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.

Keywords

exercise; genetics; strength training; quantitative trait loci; renin-angiotensin system; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING-ENZYME; INSERTION/DELETION POLYMORPHISM; ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE; PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE; MUSCULAR STRENGTH; LINKAGE; ANALYSIS; SKELETAL-MUSCLE; CROSS-EDUCATION; GENE; WOMEN; Sport Sciences

Abstract

Purpose: To examine associations among the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism and the :response to a 12-wk (2 d(.)wk(-1)) unilateral, upper-arm resistance training (RT) program in the trained (T, nondominant) and untrained (UT, dominant) arms. Methods: Subjects were 631 (mean +/- SEM, 24.2 +/- 0.2 yr) white (80%) men (42%) and women (58%). The ACE ID genotype was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with frequencies of 23.1, 46.1, and 30.8% for ACE II, ID, and DD, respectively (chi(2) = 1.688, P = 0.430). Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and one-repetition maximum (1RM) assessed peak elbow flexor muscle strength. Magnetic resonance imaging measured biceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Multiple variable and repeated-measures ANCOVA tested whether muscle strength and size differed at baseline and pre- to post-RT among T and UT and ACE ID genotype. Results: Baseline muscle strength and size were greater in UT than T (P < 0.001) and did not differ among ACE ID genotype in either arm (P >= 0.05). In T, MVC increases were greater for ACE II/ID (22%) than DD (17%) (P < 0.05), whereas 1RM (51%) and CSA (19%) gains were not different among ACE ID genotype pre- to post-RT (P >= 0.05). In UT, MVC increased among ACE II/ID (7%) (P < 0.001) but was similar among ACE DD (2%) pre- to post-RT (P > 0.05). In UT, 1RM (11%) and CSA (2%) increases were greater for ACE DD/ID than ACE 11 (1RM, 7%; CSA, -0.1%) (P < 0.05). ACE ID genotype explained approximately 1% of the MVC response to RT in T and approximately 2% of MVC, 2% of 1RM, and 4% of CSA response in UT (P < 0.05). Conclusion: ACE ID genotype is associated with the contralateral effects of unilateral RT, perhaps more so than with the muscle strength and size adaptations that result from RT.

Journal Title

Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise

Volume

38

Issue/Number

6

Publication Date

1-1-2006

Document Type

Article

Language

English

First Page

1074

Last Page

1081

WOS Identifier

WOS:000238205200009

ISSN

0195-9131

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