Surface tension of evaporating nanofluid droplets
Abbreviated Journal Title
Int. J. Heat Mass Transf.
Nanofluids; Surface tension; Evaporating droplet; Stefan's formula; THERMAL-CONDUCTIVITY ENHANCEMENT; BOILING HEAT-TRANSFER; NANO-FLUIDS; CONTACT-ANGLE; NANOPARTICLES; TEMPERATURE; WATER; MICROLAYER; PARTICLES; DYNAMICS; Thermodynamics; Engineering, Mechanical; Mechanics
Measurements of nanofluid surface tension were made using the pendant droplet method. Three different types of nanoparticles were used - laponite, silver and Fe(2)O(3) - with de-ionized water (DW) as the base fluid. The reported results focus on the following categories; (1) because some nanoparticles require surfactants to form stable colloids, the individual effects of the surfactant and the particles were investigated; (2) due to evaporation of the pendant droplet, the particle concentration increases, affecting the apparent surface tension; (3) because of the evaporation process, a hysteresis was found where the evaporating droplet can only achieve lower values of surface tension than that of nanofluids at the same prepared concentrations: and (4) the Stefan equation relating the apparent surface tension and heat of evaporation was found to be inapplicable for nanofluids investigated. Comparisons with findings for sessile droplets are also discussed, pointing to additional effects of nanoparticles other than the non-equilibrium evaporation process. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
"Surface tension of evaporating nanofluid droplets" (2011). Faculty Bibliography 2010s. 1163.