Expression of Aquaporin 1 and 4 in a Congenital Hydrocephalus Rat Model
Abbreviated Journal Title
Aquaporins; Cerebrospinal fluid; Hydrocephalus Texas rat; Hydrocephalus; ATRIAL-NATRIURETIC-PEPTIDE; H-TX RAT; BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY; CEREBROSPINAL-FLUID PRESSURE; KAOLIN-INDUCED HYDROCEPHALUS; CHOROID-PLEXUS; WATER CHANNELS; INTRACRANIAL-PRESSURE; BRAIN EDEMA; ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS; Clinical Neurology; Surgery
BACKGROUND: Hydrocephalus occurs because of an imbalance of bulk fluid flow in the brain, and aquaporins (AQPs) play pivotal roles in cerebral water movement as essential mediators during edema and fluid accumulation. AQP1 is a water channel found in the choroid plexus (CP), and AQP4 is expressed at the brain-CSF interfaces and astrocytic end feet; excessive fluid accumulation may involve expression of changes in these AQPs during various stages of hydrocephalus. OBJECTIVE: To determine the alterations of CP AQP1 expression in congenital hydrocephalus; detect hydrocephalus-induced AQP1 expression in the cortical parenchyma, ependyma, and pia mater of hydrocephalic animals; and evaluate AQP4 expression in congenital hydrocephalus through progressive stages of the condition. METHODS: We evaluated differential expression of AQPs 1 and 4 in the congenital hydrocephalus Texas rat at postnatal days 5, 10, and 26 in isolated CP and cortex by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The CP exhibited a 34% decrease in AQP1 expression in young hydrocephalic pups (postnatal days 5 and 10), which became normal (postnatal day 26) just before death. With advancing hydrocephalus, expression of AQPs 1 and 4 increased at the brain-CSF interfaces; AQP1 was localized to the endothelium of cortical capillaries with increased AQP4 expression in surrounding astrocytes end feet. AQP1 expression level was increased in the pia mater, with prominent AQP4 expression in the subpial layers. Subependymal capillaries expressed AQP1 in the endothelium, with increasing AQP4 expression in surrounding astrocytes. Hydrocephalic animals (postnatal day 26) had significant nonendothelial (CD34(-)) AQP1 expression in the septal nucleus of the basal forebrain, an area affected by increased intracranial pressure. CONCLUSION: Biphasic AQP1 expression in the CP with increased AQPs 1 and 4 at the brain-fluid interfaces may indicate compensatory mechanisms to regulate choroidal cerebrospinal fluid secretion and increase parenchymal fluid absorption in the high-pressure hydrocephalic condition.
"Expression of Aquaporin 1 and 4 in a Congenital Hydrocephalus Rat Model" (2011). Faculty Bibliography 2010s. 1748.