The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and potential abnormalities of biomarkers in female soccer and field hockey players by conducting a meta-analysis of previous studies. In this study, previous research on certain biomarkers (Creatine kinase, lactic acid, iron, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and cortisol) in collegiate, elite and national level female soccer and field hockey players was collected and evaluated. Studies on baseline measurements for these biomarkers in female soccer and field hockey athletes were collected and their group means were considered. These values were collectively put into individual forest plots, one for each biomarker, and were thereafter compared to a given normal laboratory blood value range for the general population. Whereas iron, white blood cell count and especially hemoglobin tended to lie either towards or beneath the lower limit of the reference range assigned to the general population, CK and cortisol have a tendency to be higher in athletes compared to the general population. The findings for lactic acid did not have a significant tendency in either direction. The findings made throughout this study indicate the importance of proper nutrition for the athletes. Furthermore, the findings reiterate and remind coaches and health professionals of the importance on not only the education on proper nutrition for athletes, including sufficient iron intake and possible iron and vitamin supplementation but also the importance of adequate rest and time for recovery to limit the risk of overtraining and high intensity exercise related illness and infection.
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Fisher, Thomas J.
Bachelor of Science (B.S.)
College of Education and Human Performance
Educational and Human Sciences
Sport and Exercise Science
Dissertations, Academic -- Education; Education -- Dissertations, Academic
Length of Campus-only Access
Honors in the Major Thesis
Howard, Sophie, "Biomarkers in Athletes: A Meta-Analysis In Female Soccer and Field Hockey Players" (2015). HIM 1990-2015. 1714.