Co-production versus Co-creation: A process based Continuum in the Hotel Service Context
This paper reviews the theoretical underpinnings of co-production and co-creation and discusses these service production approaches in a hotel context. Based on a synthesis of the literature, we present a co-production to co-creation matrix and offer several propositions: (1) the co-production versus co-creation concepts create a continuum rather than a dichotomy; (2) service innovation and the customisation of service production are conceived as lying somewhere between co-production and cocreation on this continuum; and (3) the key factors that define a typology of service production types (co-production, service innovation, customisation, and co-creation) include the primary value-creation driver and customer involvement/dialogue type. We further discuss the benefits for hotels of moving from co-production to co-creation on this continuum. As one of the first papers to discuss co-creation in hospitality, it contributes to the field by providing specific theoretical and practical implications for how hotel companies can move from co-production to co-creation.