Armbuster, Bonnie B., and Thomas H. Anderson, "Structures of Explanations in History Textbooks or So What if Governor Stanford Missed the Spike and Hit the Rail?" Journal of Curriculum Studies, 16(April-June, 1984), 181-194.


Examines explanations of historical events in textbooks in terms of four frame questions (goal, plan, action, outcome) in order to locate weaknesses that may hinder learning.

Broad Topical Focus

Curriculum Guides, Plans, Documents, Materials

Source Discipline


Mode of Inquiry in the Study

Theoretical/Conceptual Inquiry

Type of Study

Single Study

Narrow Topic

Materials Development and Evaluation, Social Studies, Textbooks


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