Schwab, Joseph J., "The Practical: A Language for Curriculum ," School Review, 78(November, 1969), 1-23; Revised version published by Washington, DC: National Education Association, 1970; Reprinted pp. 287-321 in Ian Westbury and Neil J. Wilkof, eds., Science, Curriculum, and Liberal Education: Selected Essays by Joseph J. Schwab . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978; also reprinted pp. 586-607 in James R. Gress, ed., Curriculum: An Introduction to the Field . Berkeley, CA: McCutchan, 1988. Also reprinted in Journal of Curriculum Studies, 45(5, 2013),591-621.*


Challenges the development of curriculum theories not based on empirical evidence; poses a practical orientation to curriculum theory development; and introduces arguments for ways in which the practical modes might function; known as Practical 1, it lays groundwork for The Practical 2,3, and 4.

Broad Topical Focus

Curriculum Research and Inquiry-General, Relation of Curriculum Research to Practice, Curriculum Decision-making Processes, Curriculum Conceptions and Theories, Curriculum Theorists

Source Discipline


Mode of Inquiry in the Study

Philosophical Inquiry-Ampliative Criticism, Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay

Type of Study

Single Study

Narrow Topic

Knowledge Generation, Curriculum Deliberation, Curriculum Theory Creation and Uses


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