Baker, Eva L., and Robert L. Linn, "Validity Issues for Accountability Systems," pp. 47-72 in Susan H. Fuhrman and Richard F. Elmore, eds., Redesigning Accountability Systems for Education. New York: Teachers College Press, 2004.


Formulates a theory of action within which testing and accountability policies lie; sets standards for accountability systems, testing, stakes, public reporting, and evaluation; followed by an article outlining three accountability models by Linn.

Broad Topical Focus

Curriculum Policies and Policy Making, Curriculum Evaluation

Source Discipline


Mode of Inquiry in the Study

Evaluative Inquiry, Philosophical Inquiry-Speculative Essay

Type of Study

Single Study

Narrow Topic

Curriculum Standards and Testing, Student Assessment, Evaluation of Instruction


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