Sivanne Mendelson, Robert Dvorak, Stacie Becker


Medical tattoo, breast reconstruction, mastectomy, nipple areola complex, cosmetic surgery, consultation


This is the survey 1 dataset that was used to develop Tattoo Attitudes and Motivations Scale (TAMS). The TAMS was developed to identify individuals who would find medical tattooing psychologically acceptable and beneficial. An Exploratory Factor Analysis with 589 healthy women identified a 10-item measure with good model fit and three subscales: Self-Enhancement, Negative Attitude, and Self-Expression. The TAMS demonstrated strong internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and discriminative validity.

Data Source

This is a spss (.sav) database collected from an online survey with undergraduate psychology students who identify their gender as female in 2023. Participants were asked to rate their self-esteem, self-image, appearance schema, and attitudes towards cosmetic surgery and tattooing in general. Then they were asked to assess the aesthetic outcomes of individuals who have received these interventions by viewing before and after photographs of their appearance. Anonymous photographs are taken from online medical websites illustrating the procedures and do not contain personally identifiable information. The study aimed to assess various aspects of aesthetic outcomes of cosmetic surgery and medical tattooing of the breast. Aesthetic outcomes were specifically assessed in terms breast size, shape, and proportions. Various factors which may predict outcomes such as depression, anxiety, self-esteem, self-body image and attitudes towards cosmetic breast surgery will be examined. The information collected in this study may be of use to women following mastectomy when they are considering different approaches to reconstruction. Participants who completed Phase 1 with more than 4 weeks left in the semester were invited to complete Phase 2 of the study. SONA will generate a code to link participants anonymously. Phase 2 was abbreviated and included the measures developed for the study: Tattoo Attitude Scale (Tattitude Scale), Breast Satisfaction Scale (BSS), Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale. This was done to calculate test-retest reliability indices for those measures. Participants received .5 credit for Phase 2.

Variables in Dataset:

  • Demographics
  • Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9)
  • General Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 (GAD-7)
  • Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale
  • Social Media Use
  • Tattoo Attitude Scale (TAMS item pool)
  • Breast Satisfaction Scale (BSS)
  • Appearance Schemas Inventory Revised (ASI)
  • Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale
  • Pre-Cosmetic Breast Surgery Ratings
  • Post-Cosmetic Breast Surgery Ratings
  • Breast Scar Attitudes
  • Pre-Medical Tattooing Breast Scar Attitudes
  • Post-Medical Tattooing
  • Decision Satisfaction Scale (DSS)
  • Breast Surgery History Post-Participation Information


Medical tattooing is used to restore the appearance or camouflage scarred areas of skin for aesthetic or medical purposes. The Tattoo Attitude and Motivations Scale (TAMS) was created to assess candidates who may benefit from medical tattooing. TAMS items were initially developed through a review of existing literature on tattoo perceptions and were tested using Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis. The final version of the TAMS consists of 12 items divided into three subscales: Negative Attitude, Self-Expression, and Self-Enhancement. The psychometric qualities of the TAMS were evaluated for internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and discriminant validity. While the TAMS is effective in assessing attitudes and motivations towards tattoos in a general population, further research is needed to evaluate its effectiveness in clinical populations.

Date Created


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Spss datafile (.sav)



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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Please contact Miranda Proctor if you need help identifying the variables in the spss dataset.




Department of Psychology


Clinical Psychology Ph.D. Program