attention, augmented reality, orienting, cueing, human factors
Advances in simulation technology have brought about many improvements to the way we train tasks, as well as how we perform tasks in the operational field. Augmented reality (AR) is an example of how to enhance the user's experience in the real world with computer generated information and graphics. Visual search tasks are known to be capacity demanding and therefore may be improved by training in an AR environment. During the experimental task, participants searched for enemies (while cued from visual, auditory, tactile, combinations of two, or all three modality cues) and tried to shoot them while avoiding shooting the civilians (fratricide) for two 2-minute low-workload scenarios, and two 2-minute high-workload scenarios. The results showed significant benefits of attentional cuing on visual search task performance as revealed by benefits in reaction time and accuracy from the presence of the haptic cues and auditory cues when displayed alone and the combination of the visual and haptic cues together. Fratricide occurrence was shown to be amplified by the presence of the audio cues. The two levels of workload produced differences within individual's task performance for accuracy and reaction time. Accuracy and reaction time were significantly better with the medium cues than all the others and the control condition during low workload and marginally better during high workload. Cue specificity resulted in a non-linear function in terms of performance in the low workload condition. These results are in support of Posner's (1978) theory that, in general, cueing can benefit locating targets in the environment by aligning the attentional system with the visual input pathways. The cue modality does not have to match the target modality. This research is relevant to potential applications of AR technology. Furthermore, the results identify and describe perceptual and/or cognitive issues with the use of displaying computer generated augmented objects and information overlaid upon the real world. The results also serve as a basis for providing a variety of training and design recommendations to direct attention during military operations. Such recommendations include cueing the Soldier to the location of hazards, and mitigating the effects of stress and workload.
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Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
College of Sciences
Length of Campus-only Access
Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)
Jerome, Christian, "Orienting Of Visual-spatial Attention With Augmented Reality: Effects Of Spatial And Non-spatial Multi-modal Cues" (2006). Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2004-2019. 1107.