Antimalarials, Malaria, Marine biodiversity, Plasmodium falciparum
An estimated 500 million cases of malaria occur each year. The increasing prevalence of drug resistant strains of Plasmodium in most malaria endemic areas has significantly reduced the efficacy of current antimalarial drugs for prophylaxis and treatment of this disease. Therefore, discovery of new, inexpensive, and effective drugs are urgently needed to combat this disease. Marine biodiversity is an enormous source of novel chemical entities and has been barely investigated for antimalarial drug discovery. In an effort to discover novel therapeutics for malaria, we studied the antimalarial activities of a unique marine-derived peak fraction library provided by Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute (HBOI). Within this unique library, we have screened 2,830 marine natural product (MNP) peak fractions through a medium throughput screening effort utilizing the SYBR Green-I fluorescence based assay, and have identified 253 fractions that exhibit antimalarial activity. From those inhibiting fractions we have identified twenty species of marine organisms that inhibit Plasmodium falciparum growth, from which thirty-five fractions were selected for further study. Among those thirty-five, eighty-three percent were also found to inhibit the chloroquine resistant strain of P. falciparum, Dd2. The most potent inhibitors were then screened for their cytotoxic properties using the MTT cell viability assay. Among the samples that exhibited potent inhibition of P. falciparum growth were fractions derived from a sponge of the genus Spongosorites sp.. This genus of sponge has been reported to contain the nortopsentin and topsentin class of bis-indole imidazole alkaloids. Nortopsentin A inhibited the parasite growth at the trophozoite stage with an IC50 value of 1.6 µM. This is the first report of antimalarial activity for this class of compound.
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Master of Science (M.S.)
College of Medicine
Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences
Length of Campus-only Access
Masters Thesis (Open Access)
Dissertations, Academic -- Medicine, Medicine -- Dissertations, Academic
Alvarado, Stephenie M., "Identification Of Novel Antimalarials From Marine Natural Products For Lead Discovery" (2010). Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2004-2019. 1583.