Traffic safety, Accident analysis, Negative Binomial Regression analysis, Expected Accident Value tables
A high percentage of highway crashes in the United States occur at intersections. These crashes result in property damage, lost productivity, injury, and even death. Identifying intersections associated with high crash rate is very important to minimize future crashes. The purpose of this study is to develop efficient means to evaluate intersections, which may require safety improvements. The area covered by the analysis in this thesis includes Orange and Seminole Counties and the City of Orlando. The aforementioned counties and city thus represent Central Florida. Each County/City provided data that consisted of signalized intersection drawings that were either in the form of electronic or hard copies, the county's extensive crash database and a list of intersections that underwent modifications during the study period. A total of 786 intersections were used in the analysis and the crash database was made up of 4271 crashes. From the signalized intersection drawings obtained from the county's traffic engineering department, a geometry database was created to classify all intersections by the number of through lanes, number of left turning lanes, Average Annual Daily Traffic and Posted Speed limits on the Major road of the intersection. In this research, crashes and their type, e.g., rear-end, left-turn and angle as well as total crashes were investigated. Numerous models were developed first using the Poisson regression and then using the Negative Binomial approach as the data showed overdispersion. The modeling process aimed to relate geometric and traffic factors to the frequency of crashes at intersections. Expected value analysis tables were also developed to determine if an intersection had an abnormally high number of crashes. These tables can be used in assisting Traffic Engineers in identifying serious safety problems at intersections. The general models illustrated that rear-end crashes were associated with high natural logarithm of AADT on the major road and the number of lanes (major intersections, e.g. 6x4/6x6), whereas AADT on the major road did not affect left-turn crashes. Intersections with the configuration 4x2/6x2 (2 through lanes at the minor roadway) or T intersections as another category experienced an increase in left-turn crashes. Angle crashes were most frequent at one-way intersections especially in the case of 4x4 intersections. Individual models that included interaction terms with one variable at a time concluded that AADT on the major road positively influenced rear-end crashes more compared to angle and left-turn crashes. As the speed increases on the minor road, the left turn crashes are affected more when compared to angle and rear-end crashes, therefore it can be concluded that left-turn crashes are most influenced by the speed limit on the minor road compared to angle crashes and then followed by rear-end crashes. As the total number of left turn lanes increased at the intersection, thereby increasing the size of the intersection, the number of rear-end crashes increased. An overall model that contained natural logarithm of AADT on major road, total number of left turn lanes at the intersection, number of through lanes on the minor road and configuration of the intersection, as independent variables, along with interaction terms, further concluded and supported the individual models that the number of crashes (rear-end, left-turn and angle) increased as the AADT on the major road increased and the number of crashes decreased as the total number of left turn lanes at the intersection increased. Also, crashes increased as the number of through lanes on the minor road increased. The variables' interaction effects with dummies representing rear-end and left-turn crashes in the final model showed that as the AADT on the major road increased, the number of rear-end crashes increased compared to left-turn and angle crashes and also that as the total number of left turn lanes at the intersection increased, the number of left-turn crashes decreased when compared to rear-end and angle crashes. Also the number of rear-end crashes increased at major four leg intersections e.g. 6x4, 6x6 etc. This thesis demonstrated the superiority of Negative Binomial regression in modeling the frequency of crashes at signalized intersections.
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Master of Science (M.S.)
College of Engineering and Computer Science
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Length of Campus-only Access
Masters Thesis (Open Access)
Kowdla, Smitha, "Modeling Crash Frequencies At Signalized Intersections In Central Flor" (2004). Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2004-2019. 204.