Uncoupled motion, motion sickness, simulator sickness, ssq, indirect vision systems, displays, postural stability


The present research attempted to use display design as a means to mitigate the occurrence and severity of symptoms of motion sickness and increase performance due to reduced “general effects” in an uncoupled motion environment. Specifically, several visual display manipulations of a 360° indirect vision system were implemented during a target detection task while participants were concurrently immersed in a motion simulator that mimicked off-road terrain which was completely separate from the target detection route. Results of a multiple regression analysis determined that the Dual Banners display incorporating an artificial horizon (i.e., AH Dual Banners) and perceived attentional control significantly contributed to the outcome of total severity of motion sickness, as measured by the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ). Altogether, 33.6% (adjusted) of the variability in Total Severity was predicted by the variables used in the model. Objective measures were assessed prior to, during and after uncoupled motion. These tests involved performance while immersed in the environment (i.e., target detection and situation awareness), as well as postural stability and cognitive and visual assessment tests (i.e., Grammatical Reasoning and Manikin) both before and after immersion. Response time to Grammatical Reasoning actually decreased after uncoupled motion. However, this was the only significant difference of all the performance measures. Assessment of subjective workload (as measured by NASA-TLX) determined that participants in Dual Banners display conditions had a significantly lower level of perceived physical demand than those with Completely Separated display designs. Further, perceived iv temporal demand was lower for participants exposed to conditions incorporating an artificial horizon. Subjective sickness (SSQ Total Severity, Nausea, Oculomotor and Disorientation) was evaluated using non-parametric tests and confirmed that the AH Dual Banners display had significantly lower Total Severity scores than the Completely Separated display with no artificial horizon (i.e., NoAH Completely Separated). Oculomotor scores were also significantly different for these two conditions, with lower scores associated with AH Dual Banners. The NoAH Completely Separated condition also had marginally higher oculomotor scores when compared to the Completely Separated display incorporating the artificial horizon (AH Completely Separated). There were no significant differences of sickness symptoms or severity (measured by self-assessment, postural stability, and cognitive and visual tests) between display designs 30- and 60-minutes post-exposure. Further, 30- and 60- minute post measures were not significantly different from baseline scores, suggesting that aftereffects were not present up to 60 minutes post-exposure. It was concluded that incorporating an artificial horizon onto the Dual Banners display will be beneficial in mitigating symptoms of motion sickness in manned ground vehicles using 360° indirect vision systems. Screening for perceived attentional control will also be advantageous in situations where selection is possible. However, caution must be made in generalizing these results to missions under terrain or vehicle speed different than what is used for this study, as well as those that include a longer immersion time.


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Graduation Date





Rinalducci, Edward


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Sciences



Degree Program

Psychology; Human Factors Psychology








Release Date

December 2013

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)


Dissertations, Academic -- Sciences, Sciences -- Dissertations, Academic

Included in

Psychology Commons