Vldl, endoplasmic reticulum, cideb, svip, coat complex ii, aopolipoprotein b 100, vldl transport vesicle


Increased secretion of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), a triglyceride-rich lipoprotein, by the liver causes hypertriglyceridemia, which is a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. The rate of VLDL-secretion from the liver is determined by its controlled transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi. The ER-to-Golgi transport of newly synthesized VLDL is a complex multi-step process and is mediated by the VLDL transport vesicle (VTV). Once a nascent VLDL particle is synthesized in the lumen of the ER, it triggers the process of VTV-biogenesis and this process requires coat complex II (COPII) proteins that mediate the formation of classical protein transport vesicles (PTV). Even though, both VTV and PTV bud off the same ER at the same time and require the same COPII proteins, their cargos and sizes are different. The VTV specifically exports VLDL to the Golgi and excludes hepatic secretory proteins such as albumin and the size of the VTV is larger (~ 100 -120 nm) than PTV to accommodate VLDL-sized particles. These observations indicate (i) the existence of a sorting mechanism at the level of the ER; and (ii) the involvement of proteins in addition to COPII components. This doctoral thesis is focused on identification of proteins regulating VLDL sorting into the VTV and involved in the biogenesis of the VTV. In order to identify proteins present exclusively in VTV, we have characterized the proteome of VTV, which suggest CideB (cell death-inducing DFF45-like effector b) and SVIP (small VCP/P97 interacting protein) as candidates, present in VTV but excluded from PTV. We further confirmed the finding by performing co-immunoprecipitation studies and confocal microscopy studies. CideB, a 26-kDa protein was found to interact with apolipoprotein iv B100 (apoB 100), the structural protein of VLDL. Moreover, CideB interacts with two of the COPII components, Sar1 and Sec24. VTV generation was examined after blocking CideB by specific antibodies and by silencing CideB in rat primary hepatocytes. Knockdown of CideB in primary hepatocytes showed significant reduction in VTV generation, however, CideB was concentrated in VTV as compared with the ER suggesting its functional role in the sorting of VLDL into the VTV. SVIP, a small (~ 9-kDa) protein was found to interact with Sar1, a COPII component that initiates the budding of vesicles from ER membrane. SVIP has sites for myristoylation and we found increased recruitment of SVIP on ER membrane upon myristic acid (MA) treatment. Sar1 that lacks sites for myristoylation also is recruited more on ER upon myristoylation indicating that SVIP promotes Sar1 recruitment on ER. Additionally, our data suggest that Sar1 interacts with SVIP and forms a multimer that facilitates the biogenesis of VTV. Interestingly, silencing of SVIP reduced the VTV generation significantly. Conversely, incubation with MA increased the VTV budding, suggesting recruitment of SVIP on ER surface facilitates the VTV budding. We conclude that SVIP recruits Sar1 on ER membrane and makes an intricate COPII coat leading to the formation of a large vesicle, the VTV. Overall, the data presented in this thesis, determines the role of CideB and SVIP in regulating VLDL sorting and VTV biogenesis.


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Graduation Date





Siddiqi, Shadab


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Medicine


Molecular Biology and Microbiology

Degree Program

Biomedical Sciences








Release Date


Length of Campus-only Access

5 years

Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)


Dissertations, Academic -- Medicine, Medicine -- Dissertations, Academic