Personality into Crowd Simulation, Big Five, MASON, OpenCV


Recently, a considerable amount of research has been performed on simulating the collective behavior of pedestrians in the street or people finding their way inside a building or a room. Comprehensive reviews of the state of the art can be found in Schreckenberg and Deo (2002) and Batty, M., DeSyllas, J. and Duxbury, E. (2003). In all these simulation studies, one area that is lacking is accounting for the effects of human personalities on the outcome. As a result, there is a growing emphasis on researching the effects of human personalities and adding the results to the simulations to make them more realistic. This research investigated the possibility of incorporating personality factors into the crowd simulation model. The first part of this study explored the extraction of quantitative crowd motion from videos and developed a method to compare real video with the simulation output video. Several open source programs were examined and modified to obtain optical flow measurements from real videos captured at sporting events. Optical flow measurements provide information such as crowd density, average velocity with which individuals move in the crowd, as well as other parameters. These quantifiable optical flow calculations provided a strong method for comparing simulation results with those obtained from video footage captured in real life situations. The second part of the research focused on the incorporation of the personality factors into the crowd simulation. Existing crowd models such as HelbingU-Molnar-Farkas-Vicsek (HMFV) do not take individual personality factors into account. The most common approach employed by psychologists for studying personality traits is the Big Five factors or dimensions of personality (NEO: Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness). In this research forces related to the personality factors were incorporated into the crowd simulation models. The NEO-based forces were incorporated into an existing HMFV simulated implemented in the MASON simulation framework. The simulation results were validated using the quantification procedures developed in the first phase. This research reports on a major expansion of a simulation of pedestrian motion based on the model (HMFV) by Helbing, D., I. J. Farkas, P. Molnár, and T. Vicsek (2002). Example of actual behavior such as a crowd exiting church after service were simulated using NEO-based forces and show a striking resemblance to actual behavior as rated by behavior scientists.


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Graduation Date





Kincaid, J. Peter


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Engineering and Computer Science

Degree Program

Modeling and Simulation








Release Date

July 2007

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)

Included in

Engineering Commons