Career Exploration, Career indecision, Career education


The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference between Black and White 9th grade suburban students in regard to career indecision and certainty, and to determine what relationship exists between career indecision/certainty, motivational level, locus of control, and attributional style. The sample size of this study was 95 ninth grade students from a Seminole County high school in the state of Florida. Some of the demographic variables taken into account for this study were student socioeconomic status, involvement in special programming at school (i.e. Exceptional Education, or Advanced Placement), parental education level, and parental occupation. The data in this study was collected through the use of the Career Decision Scale (CDS), Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire-Revised (CASQ-R), Children's Nowicki-Strickland Internal External Locus of Control Scale (CNISE), and the Five Item Polarized Motivation Scale. The results of this study came as a result of the use of an ANOVA and Mann Whitney test, as well as a series of simple linear regression analyses. The ANOVA and Mann Whitney test determined if there was a difference in career indecision/ certainty level based on race. The linear regression analysis compared the variables of career indecision/certainty, motivation level, attributional style, and locus of control to uncover any predictive relationships. Post hoc analyses were also conducted to determine if the variables of motivational level, locus of control, attributional style, and career indecision/certainty are predictors for race. The results of the data indicate that there is no statistical significance between race and career indecision between Black and White students. Also the results uncovered the only predictive relationships among the variables existed between career certainty and motivation, career indecision and attributional style, and locus of control and attributional style. The post hoc analyses uncovered that race cannot be predicted by any of the variables in this study. This study is exploratory in nature and should be replicated with the use of a larger sample size to further explore this phenomenon.


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Graduation Date





Hayes, Grant


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Education


Child, Family, and Community Sciences

Degree Program









Release Date

May 2007

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)

Included in

Education Commons