Silicon Carbide, Laser Doping, White Light emitting diodes, DLTS, Hall Effect, Diffusion


This work establishes a solid foundation for the use of indirect band gap semiconductors for light emitting application and presents the work on development of white light emitting diodes (LEDs) in silicon carbide (SiC). Novel laser doping has been utilized to fabricate white light emitting diodes in 6H-SiC (n-type N) and 4H-SiC (p-type Al) wafers. The emission of different colors to ultimately generate white light is tailored on the basis of donor acceptor pair (DAP) recombination mechanism for luminescence. A Q-switched Nd:YAG pulse laser (1064 nm wavelength) was used to carry out the doping experiments. The p and n regions of the white SiC LED were fabricated by laser doping an n-type 6H-SiC and p-type 4H-SiC wafer substrates with respective dopants. Cr, B and Al were used as p-type dopants (acceptors) while N and Se were used as n-type dopants (donors). Deep and shallow donor and acceptor impurity level states formed by these dopants tailor the color properties for pure white light emission. The electromagnetic field of lasers and non-equilibrium doping conditions enable laser doping of SiC with increased dopant diffusivity and enhanced solid solubility. A thermal model is utilized to determine the laser doping parameters for temperature distribution at various depths of the wafer and a diffusion model is presented including the effects of Fick's diffusion, laser electromagnetic field and thermal stresses due to localized laser heating on the mass flux of dopant atoms. The dopant diffusivity is calculated as a function of temperature at different depths of the wafer based on measured dopant concentration profile. The maximum diffusivities achieved in this study are 4.61x10-10 cm2/s at 2898 K and 6.92x10-12 cm2/s at 3046 K for Cr in 6H-SiC and 4H-SiC respectively. Secondary ion mass spectrometric (SIMS) analysis showed the concentration profile of Cr in SiC having a penetration depth ranging from 80 nm in p-type 4H-SiC to 1.5 [micro]m in n-type 6H-SiC substrates respectively. The SIMS data revealed enhanced solid solubility (2.29x1019 cm-3 in 6H-SiC and 1.42x1919 cm-3 in 4H-SiC) beyond the equilibrium limit (3x1017 cm-3 in 6H-SiC above 2500 [degrees]C) for Cr in SiC. It also revealed similar effects for Al and N. The roughness, surface chemistry and crystalline integrity of the doped sample were examined by optical interferometer, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) respectively. Inspite of the larger atomic size of Cr compared to Si and C, the non-equilibrium conditions during laser doping allow effective incorporation of dopant atoms into the SiC lattice without causing any damage to the surface or crystal lattice. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) confirmed the deep level acceptor state of Cr with activation energies of Ev+0.80 eV in 4H-SiC and Ev+0.45 eV in 6H-SiC. The Hall Effect measurements showed the hole concentration to be 1.98x1019 cm-3 which is almost twice the average Cr concentration (1x1019 cm-3) obtained from the SIMS data. These data confirmed that almost all of the Cr atoms were completely activated to the double acceptor state by the laser doping process without requiring any subsequent annealing step. Electroluminescence studies showed blue (460-498 nm), blue-green (500-520 nm) green (521-575 nm), and orange (650-690 nm) wavelengths due to radiative recombination transitions between donor-acceptors pairs of N-Al, N-B, N-Cr and Cr-Al respectively, while a prominent violet (408 nm) wavelength was observed due to transitions from the nitrogen level to the valence band level. The red (698-738 nm) luminescence was mainly due to metastable mid-bandgap states, however under high injection current it was due to the quantum mechanical phenomenon pertaining to band broadening and overlapping. This RGB combination produced a broadband white light spectrum extending from 380 to 900 nm. The color space tri-stimulus values for 4H-SiC doped with Cr and N were X = 0.3322, Y = 0.3320 and Z = 0.3358 as per 1931 CIE (International Commission on Illumination) corresponding to a color rendering index of 96.56 and the color temperature of 5510 K. And for 6H-SiC n-type doped with Cr and Al, the color space tri-stimulus values are X = 0.3322, Y = 0.3320 and Z = 0.3358. The CCT was 5338 K, which is very close to the incandescent lamp (or black body) and lies between bright midday sun (5200 K) and average daylight (5500 K) while CRI was 98.32. Similar white LED's were also fabricated using Cr, Al, Se as one set of dopants and B, Al, N as another.


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Graduation Date



Kar, Aravinda


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Engineering and Computer Science


Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering

Degree Program

Materials Science and Engineering








Release Date

December 2011

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)