3D navigation, 3D user interfaces, locomotion, video games, football, wiimotes


We present an exploration into realistic locomotion interfaces in video games using spatially convenient input hardware. In particular, we use Nintendo Wii Remotes to create natural mappings between user actions and their representation in a video game. Targeting American Football video games, we used the role of the quarterback as an exemplar since the game player needs to maneuver effectively in a small area, run down the field, and perform evasive gestures such as spinning, jumping, or the "juke". In our study, we developed three locomotion techniques. The first technique used a single Wii Remote, placed anywhere on the user's body, using only the acceleration data. The second technique just used the Wii Remote's infrared sensor and had to be placed on the user's head. The third technique combined a Wii Remote's acceleration and infrared data using a Kalman filter. The Wii Motion Plus was also integrated to add the orientation of the user into the video game. To evaluate the different techniques, we compared them with a cost effective six degree of freedom (6DOF) optical tracker and two Wii Remotes placed on the user's feet. Experiments were performed comparing each to this technique. Finally, a user study was performed to determine if a preference existed among these techniques. The results showed that the second and third technique had the same location accuracy as the cost effective 6DOF tracker, but the first was too inaccurate for video game players. Furthermore, the range of the Wii remote infrared and Motion Plus exceeded the optical tracker of the comparison technique. Finally, the user study showed that video game players preferred the third method over the second, but were split on the use of the Motion Plus when the tasks did not require it.


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Graduation Date



LaViola Jr., Joseph J.


Master of Science (M.S.)


College of Engineering and Computer Science


Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

Degree Program

Computer Science








Release Date

February 2010

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Masters Thesis (Open Access)