Bug-In-Ear, Technology, Novice Teachers, Support, Mentoring, Immediate Feedback, Coaching


Novice teachers in today's classroom are in need of support during the initial years of teaching. Providing beginning teachers in special education classroom settings with coaching and immediate feedback through Bug-In-Ear, Bluetooth technology has been identified as a effective strategy for supporting beginning teachers while simultaneously improving generalization and maintenance of instructional strategies in diverse classrooms (Anagnostopoulous, Smith & Basmadjian, 2007; Darling-Hammond and Baratz-Snowden, 2007; Brownell, Ross, Colon & McCallum, 2005). The present study was designed to examine the effects of using BIE, Bluetooth technology with novice teachers in inclusionary settings at a PK-5 charter school. As it has been demonstrated, Bug-In-Ear Bluetooth technology has allowed supervisors and mentors to increase desired teacher behaviors by providing immediate feedback, coaching and prompting during instructional delivery (Scheeler, McAfee, Ruhl and Lee (2006), Scheeler, Ruhl & McAfee, 2004; & Rock, et al., (2009). Specifically, this study looked to increase the average rate per minute of specific feedback statements made to students during reading instruction. Additionally, maintenance of increased rates of specific feedback once BIE coaching and prompting were withdrawn was also of interest. A multiple-baseline design across participants was used. Data were collected during baseline, intervention, and withdrawal phases. The independent variable was identified as prompts delivered by the coach through BIE Bluetooth technology. The dependent variable for this study was the average rate per minute of specific feedback statements made during reading instruction. Overall, the average rate per minute of specific feedback provided to students during reading instruction increased substantially with the use of Bug-In-Ear Bluetooth technology. Further, participants sustained higher than baseline averages of specific feedback provided to students. This study extended Scheeler (2004, 2006), and Rock's (2009) research on the use of immediate feedback through BIE technology, and demonstrated the effectiveness of this observation method with various participants, groups of students, and classroom diversity.


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Graduation Date



Cross, Lee


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Education


Child, Family, and Community Sciences

Degree Program









Release Date

August 2010

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)

Included in

Education Commons