We explore the concepts of coherence and entanglement as they apply to both the classical and quantum natures of light. In the classical domain, we take inspiration from the tools and concepts developed in foundational quantum mechanics and quantum information science to gain a better understanding of classical coherence theory of light with multiple degrees of freedom (DoFs). First, we use polarization and spatial parity DoFs to demonstrate the notion of classical entanglement, and show that Bell's measure can serve as a useful tool in distinguishing between classical optical coherence theory. Second, we establish a methodical yet versatile approach called 'optical coherency matrix tomography' for reconstructing the coherency matrix of an electromagnetic beam with multiple DoFs. This technique exploits the analogy between this problem in classical optics and that of tomographically reconstructing the density matrix associated with multipartite quantum states in quantum information science. Third, we report the first experimental measurements of the 4 x 4 coherency matrix associated with an electromagnetic beam in which polarization and a spatial DoF are relevant, ranging from the traditional two-point Young's double slit to spatial parity and orbital angular momentum modes. In the quantum domain, we use the modal structure of classical fields to develop qubits and structure Hilbert spaces for use in quantum information processing. Advancing to three-qubit logic gates is an important step towards the success of optical schemes for quantum computing. We experimentally implement a variety of two- and three- qubit, linear and deterministic, single-photon, controlled, quantum logic gates using polarization and spatial parity qubits. Lastly, we demonstrate the implementation of two-qubit single-photon logic using polarization and orbital angular momentum qubits.
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Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
College of Optics and Photonics
Optics and Photonics
Optics and Photonics
Length of Campus-only Access
Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)
Kagalwala, Kumel, "Entanglement and Coherence in Classical and Quantum Optics" (2015). Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2004-2019. 5150.