PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a high volume isokinetic intervention on lower body strength and inflammation, as well as markers of muscle damage in the subsequent 48 hours between younger and middle-aged men. METHODS: 19 healthy, recreationally trained men were randomly assigned to two groups, younger adults (YA: 21.8 ± 2.0 y; 90.7 ± 11.6 kg; 21.5 ± 4.1 % body fat), or middle-aged adults (MA: 47.0 ± 4.4 y; 96.0 ± 21.5; 24.8 ± 6.3 % body fat). Both groups reported to the human performance laboratory (HPL) on four separate occasions. On the first visit (D1), anthropometric assessment, as well as a familiarization session with the isokinetic dynamometer, was performed. A muscle damaging protocol (HVP) was performed on the second visit (D2) consisting of 8 sets of 10 repetitions at 60°·sec-1 on the isokinetic dynamometer. An assessment protocol (AP) was performed to assess performance decrements between the YA and MA groups. For this protocol, a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was performed, as well as 3 isokinetic kicks at 2 different speeds (240°·sec-1 and 60°·sec-1). For the MVIC, values for peak torque (PKT), average torque (AVGT), rate of torque development at 100 ms (RTD100), and 200 ms (RTD200) were recorded. For the isokinetic kicks at 240°·sec-1 (ISK240) and 60°·sec-1 (ISK60), values were also recorded for peak torque (PKT), average torque (AVGT), as well as peak power (PP), and average power (AVGP). The AP was performed before the HVP (BL), immediately after the HVP (IP), 120 minutes after the HVP (120P), as well as one (24H) and two (48H) days following the HVP. Blood draws were also taken at BL, IP, 24H, and 48H, as well as 30 minutes (30P), and 60 minutes (60P) following the HVP to assess circulating levels of creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (Mb), c-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Ultrasound assessment was also performed at BL and IP as well to assess changes in muscle morphology as a result of the intervention. Performance, blood, and ultrasound markers were analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA to observe between group comparisons for all of the outcome variables. RESULTS: There were no group differences observed for isometric or isokinetic peak torque or average torque, nor were there differences in isokinetic peak power or average power between the two groups as a result of the intervention. There were, however, differences in the pattern for rate of torque development at 100 ms and 200 ms between the two groups. RTD 100 was decreased at IP and 48H in YA, with MA showing decreases at IP, but also 120P and 24H unlike YA. RTD200 was decreased at all time points in YA, while MA was decreased at IP, 24H, and 48H, but not 120P. For markers of muscle damage and inflammation, there were no differences in the response of Mb, CK, CRP, or IL-6 between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Age does not appear to be a driving factor in the inflammatory or muscle damage response from a high volume isokinetic intervention. Though changes in peak torque and average torque from a high volume isokinetic intervention do not seem to differ between younger and middle-aged adults, the rate of torque production at 100ms and 200ms is different between groups. This suggests that while recovery to average or maximal strength after an exercise bout may not be affected greatly by age, the rate of neuromuscular recovery from exercise may be primarily affected by other factors such as training status.


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Graduation Date





Hoffman, Jay


Master of Science (M.S.)


College of Education and Human Performance


Educational and Human Sciences

Degree Program

Sport and Exercise Science; Applied Exercise Physiology









Release Date

May 2017

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Masters Thesis (Open Access)