Reading First, Collective Teacher Efficacy, Reading and Second Language Learners


This study examined explicit and systematic reading instruction for Hispanic, limited English, lower SES students in a southwest Florida school district. Additionally, collective teacher efficacy was assessed to determine if differences existed between a Reading First and a non-Reading First school. A total of 68 students participated in the study and were divided equally between a Reading First and non-Reading First school. While the Reading First school concentrated resources on grades 2 and 3, all students received some degree of Reading First strategies. Available reading measures for analyses at the time of the study included the Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE), the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT), and the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS). Results from two-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) did not reveal significant differences between the two groups on a pre and posttest administration of the GRADE. When the two groups were combined, repeated measures ANOVA indicated a significant difference between pre and post administrations of the GRADE with the posttest being significantly higher. Grades 4 and 5 showed significant gains between pre and posttest while grades 2 and 3 did not. It was hypothesized that as students' English proficiency improved, reading instruction became more meaningful and thus positively influenced the posttest. Both the GRADE and the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency test were significantly correlated with the FCAT. Regression analyses revealed that both were significant predictors individually and combined of the FCAT reading score. Collective teacher efficacy was assessed with the short-form of the Collective Teacher Efficacy Scale (CTES). A total of 38 Reading First teachers and 30 non-Reading First teachers completed the CTES and a brief biographical questionnaire. Results indicated significantly higher collective teacher efficacy in the non-Reading First school. Findings did not support the hypothesis that the intensity of the Reading First program and the teacher training required would result in significantly higher collective efficacy. Differences in level of teacher education, experience, and years teaching in a school were speculated as potential variables influencing the level of collective efficacy. Implications from this study were discussed along with recommendations for future research.


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Graduation Date





Holt, Larry


Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)


College of Education


Educational Studies

Degree Program

Curriculum and Instruction








Release Date

January 2006

Length of Campus-only Access


Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)