The rise of research on workplace mistreatment in the past twenty years can be attributed to the realization that workplace mistreatment is associated with a host of deleterious outcomes for both the individual targets of the mistreatment and the organizations in which they work. However, the extant literature is failing to capture the full range of sex-based mistreatment that people may experience through a tendency to focus solely on sexual harassment and sex discrimination, which are very specific types of behavior based on one's sex and gender stereotypes. In this dissertation, I introduce the construct of Not Woman Enough Harassment, or the extent to which women perceive that they are treated unfavorably because they do not meet traditionally held stereotypes of femininity. A scale was developed and validated in order to measure this type of harassment, and a model from antecedent to outcome was proposed. Results demonstrated that not woman enough harassment was experienced by approximately 32.5% of the sample. The scale showed good psychometric properties, with two distinct factors of harassment based on physical and non-physical traits. Not woman enough harassment was demonstrated to be distinct from other forms of sexual and workplace harassment. Discomfort with gender norm conformity and masculine physical and non-physical expression were shown to be antecedents of not woman enough harassment, along with a moderating effect of job gender context. In addition, not woman enough harassment significantly predicted decreased job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, and task performance and increased withdrawal and job stress. Similar patterns were found for males with not man enough harassment.
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Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
College of Sciences
Psychology; Industrial and Organizational
Length of Campus-only Access
Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)
Wolcott, Amanda, "Not Woman Enough Harassment: Scale Development and an Integrated Model from Antecedent to Outcome" (2017). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 5761.