Medical image segmentation is one of the fundamental processes to understand and assess the functionality of different organs and tissues as well as quantifying diseases and helping treatment planning. With ever increasing number of medical scans, the automated, accurate, and efficient medical image segmentation is as unmet need for improving healthcare. Recently, deep learning has emerged as one the most powerful methods for almost all image analysis tasks such as segmentation, detection, and classification and so in medical imaging. In this regard, this dissertation introduces new algorithms to perform medical image segmentation for different (a) imaging modalities, (b) number of objects, (c) dimensionality of images, and (d) under varying labeling conditions. First, we study dimensionality problem by introducing a new 2.5D segmentation engine that can be used in single and multi-object settings. We propose new fusion strategies and loss functions for deep neural networks to generate improved delineations. Later, we expand the proposed idea into 3D and 4D medical images and develop a "budget (computational) friendly" architecture search algorithm to make this process self-contained and fully automated without scarifying accuracy. Instead of manual architecture design, which is often based on plug-in and out and expert experience, the new algorithm provides an automated search of successful segmentation architecture within a short period of time. Finally, we study further optimization algorithms on label noise issue and improve overall segmentation problem by incorporating prior information about label noise and object shape information. We conclude the thesis work by studying different network and hyperparameter optimization settings that are fine-tuned for varying conditions for medical images. Applications are chosen from cardiac scans (images) and efficacy of the proposed algorithms are demonstrated on several data sets publicly available, and independently validated by blind evaluations.
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Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
College of Engineering and Computer Science
Length of Campus-only Access
Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)
Mortazi, Aliasghar, "Optimization Algorithms for Deep Learning Based Medical Image Segmentations" (2019). Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2004-2019. 6715.