Redundant Text, Verbal Redundancy, Cognitive Load, Multimedia Learning


In multimedia learning environments, research suggests that simultaneous presentation of redundant text (i.e. identical narration and on-screen text) may inhibit learning when presented with animation at the same time. However, related studies are limited to testing with cause-and-effects content information (e.g., Moreno & Mayer, 1999, 2002). This study examined the effects of redundant text on learners' memory achievement and problem solving ability. The study replicated and extended prior research by using descriptive, rather than cause-and-effect content information. The primary research questions were (a) does redundant text improve learning performance if learners are presented with instructional material that addresses subject matter other than cause-and-effect relationship? and (b) does sequential presentation of animation followed by redundant text help learning? To answer the research questions, five hypotheses were tested with a sample of 224 Taiwanese students enrolled in a college level Management Information System (MIS) courses at a management college in southern Taiwan. Statistically significant differences were found in memory achievement and problem solving test scores between simultaneous and sequential groups; while no statistically significant differences were found in memory achievement and problem solving test scores between verbal redundant and non-redundant groups. These results were supported by interviewees expressing difficulty in connecting animation and verbal explanation in the two sequential presentation groups. The interview responses also helped to explain why insignificant results were obtained when redundant and non-redundant verbal explanations with animation were presented simultaneously. In general, the results support previous research on the contiguity principle, suggesting that sequential presentations may lead to lower learning performance when animation and verbal explanation are closely related. The separation of the two types of information may increase cognitive load. In addition, the study found that impairment of redundant text was also affected by various learning characteristics, such as the structure of the instructional content and learners previous learning experiences. Recommendations for future study include: (a) research on various situations such as characteristics of the content, characteristics of learners, and difficulty of the instructional material that influences the effects of redundant text, and (b) research on prior learning experience that influences the effects of simultaneous redundant text presentations.


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Hirumi, Atsusi


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


College of Education


Educational Research, Technology, and Leadership

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Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)

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