Reliability, Freeway Corridors, Travel Time, Stochastic Models, Dependency, Multi-States Dependent Link Failures
During the 20th century, transportation programs were focused on the development of the basic infrastructure for the transportation networks. In the 21st century, the focus has shifted to management and operations of these networks. Transportation network reliability measure plays an important role in judging the performance of the transportation system and in evaluating the impact of new Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) deployment. The measurement of transportation network travel time reliability is imperative for providing travelers with accurate route guidance information. It can be applied to generate the shortest path (or alternative paths) connecting the origins and destinations especially under conditions of varying demands and limited capacities. The measurement of transportation network reliability is a complex issue because it involves both the infrastructure and the behavioral responses of the users. Also, this subject is challenging because there is no single agreed-upon reliability measure. This dissertation developed a new method for estimating the effect of travel demand variation and link capacity degradation on the reliability of a roadway network. The method is applied to a hypothetical roadway network and the results show that both travel time reliability and capacity reliability are consistent measures for reliability of the road network, but each may have a different use. The capacity reliability measure is of special interest to transportation network planners and engineers because it addresses the issue of whether the available network capacity relative to the present or forecast demand is sufficient, whereas travel time reliability is especially interesting for network users. The new travel time reliability method is sensitive to the users' perspective since it reflects that an increase in segment travel time should always result in less travel time reliability. And, it is an indicator of the operational consistency of a facility over an extended period of time. This initial theoretical effort and basic research was followed by applying the new method to the I-4 corridor in Orlando, Florida. This dissertation utilized a real life transportation data warehouse to estimate travel time reliability of the I-4 corridor. Four different travel time stochastic models: Weibull, Exponential, Lognormal, and Normal were tested. Lognormal was the best-fit model. Unlike the mechanical equipments, it is unrealistic that any freeway segment can be traversed in zero seconds no matter how fast the vehicles are. So, an adjustment of the developed best-fit statistical model (Lognormal) location parameter was needed to accurately estimate the travel time reliability. The adjusted model can be used to compute and predict travel time reliability of freeway corridors and report this information in real time to the public through traffic management centers. Compared to existing Florida Method and California Buffer Time Method, the new reliability method showed higher sensitivity to geographical locations, which reflects the level of congestion and bottlenecks. The major advantages/benefits of this new method to practitioners and researchers over the existing methods are its ability to estimate travel time reliability as a function of departure time, and that it treats travel time as a continuous variable that captures the variability experienced by individual travelers over an extended period of time. As such, the new method developed in this dissertation could be utilized in transportation planning and freeway operations for estimating the important travel time reliability measure of performance. Then, the segment length impacts on travel time reliability calculations were investigated utilizing the wealth of data available in the I-4 data warehouse. The developed travel time reliability models showed significant evidence of the relationship between the segment length and the results accuracy. The longer the segment, the less accurate were the travel time reliability estimates. Accordingly, long segments (e.g., 25 miles) are more appropriate for planning purposes as a macroscopic performance measure of the freeway corridor. Short segments (e.g., 5 miles) are more appropriate for the evaluation of freeway operations as a microscopic performance measure. Further, this dissertation has explored the impact of relaxing an important assumption in reliability analysis: Link independency. In real life, assuming that link failures on a road network are statistically independent is dubious. The failure of a link in one particular area does not necessarily result in the complete failure of the neighboring link, but may lead to deterioration of its performance. The "Cause-Based Multimode Model" (CBMM) has been used to address link dependency in communication networks. However, the transferability of this model to transportation networks has not been tested and this approach has not been considered before in the calculation of transportation networks' reliability. This dissertation presented the CBMM and applied it to predict transportation networks' travel time reliability that an origin demand can reach a specified destination under multimodal dependency link failure conditions. The new model studied the multi-state system reliability analysis of transportation networks for which one cannot formulate an "all or nothing" type of failure criterion and in which dependent link failures are considered. The results demonstrated that the newly developed method has true potential and can be easily extended to large-scale networks as long as the data is available. More specifically, the analysis of a hypothetical network showed that the dependency assumption is very important to obtain more reasonable travel time reliability estimates of links, paths, and the entire network. The results showed large discrepancy between the dependency and independency analysis scenarios. Realistic scenarios that considered the dependency assumption were on the safe side, this is important for transportation network decision makers. Also, this could aid travelers in making better choices. In contrast, deceptive information caused by the independency assumption could add to the travelers' anxiety associated with the unknown length of delay. This normally reflects negatively on highway agencies and management of taxpayers' resources.
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Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
College of Engineering and Computer Science
Civil and Environmental Engineering
Length of Campus-only Access
Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)
Emam, Emam, "Utilizing A Real Life Data Warehouse To Develop Freeway Travel Time Eliability Stochastic Models" (2006). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 777.