epidemic model, pathogen, mutation, time-delay, infection age, reproductive number, Hopf bifurcation
Significant progress has been made in understanding different scenarios for disease transmissions and behavior of epidemics in recent years. A considerable amount of work has been done in modeling the dynamics of diseases by systems of ordinary differential equations. But there are very few mathematical models that deal with the genetic mutations of a pathogen. In-fact, not much has been done to model the dynamics of mutations of pathogen explaining its effort to escape the host's immune defense system after it has infected the host. In this dissertation we develop an SIR model with variable infection age for the transmission of a pathogen that can mutate in the host to produce a second infectious mutant strain. We assume that there is a period of temporary immunity in the model. A temporary immunity period along with variable infection age leads to an integro-differential-difference model. Previous efforts on incorporating delays in epidemic models have mainly concentrated on inclusion of latency periods (this assumes that the force of infection at a present time is determined by the number of infectives in the past). We begin with reviewing some basic models. These basic models are the building blocks for the later, more detailed models. Next we consider the model for mutation of pathogen and discuss its implications. Finally, we improve this model for mutation of pathogen by incorporating delay induced by temporary immunity. We examine the influence of delay as we establish the existence, and derive the explicit forms of disease-free, boundary and endemic equilibriums. We will also investigate the local stability of each of these equilibriums. The possibility of Hopf bifurcation using delay as the bifurcation parameter is studied using both analytical and numerical solutions.
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Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
College of Arts and Sciences
Length of Campus-only Access
Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)
Singh, Neeta, "Epidemiological Models For Mutating Pathogens With Temporary Immunity" (2006). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 794.