The purpose of this study was to employ a network perspective to detect fluctuations in tourism (at the level of tourism areas and by inbound tourism markets) that co-occur with hazardous events. Specifically, the study focuses on the Air Travel Tourism (ATT) network of the Hawaiian Islands and its changes with the incidence of nine hazardous events from 2015 to 2021. The three main aspects of the ATT network, which include tourism connections, island preferences, and concentrations of inbound tourism markets were analyzed for a total of eighty-four monthly and seven annual network models. The results suggest that the network perspective provides insights that are especially applicable to the study of prolonged hazardous events such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Among local hazardous events, the volcanic eruption and Hurricane Lane, both occurring in 2018, were associated with a decrease in visitors and preferences for Hawaii and Molokai Island. During the COVID-19 pandemic, uneven fluctuations were detected for all groups of the Hawaiian Islands. The peripheral islands had the most interrupted tourism connections during the pandemic period, while the core and semi-core islands had the most fluctuations in preference. International travel restrictions favored increases in concentrations of both domestic markets in Oahu Island, and only of the U.S. West market in the other islands. Interestingly, the mix of pandemic-related travel restrictions and recovery policies corresponded with asymmetrical tourism fluctuations for each island. The annual results suggested more stability in the aspects of the ATT network compared to the monthly results. The current study advances the tourism literature on hazardous events with insights from a network perspective. Additionally, the findings serve as a starting point for the development of new propositions and hypotheses to be tested in future research. In terms of practical implications, the results suggest that the network perspective may be beneficial for tourism practitioners to evaluate the differentiated results of policies issued in times of hazardous events. Furthermore, the unevenness of the detected fluctuations in the ATT network underscores the value of tailored planning, management, and marketing strategies in times of turbulence.


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Graduation Date





Alvarez, Sergio


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


Rosen College of Hospitality Management

Degree Program

Hospitality Management




CFE0009331; DP0027054





Release Date

December 2023

Length of Campus-only Access

1 year

Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Campus-only Access)


Rosen College of Hospitality Management

Restricted to the UCF community until December 2023; it will then be open access.