Vulnerable road user (VRU) detection and tracking has been a key challenge in transportation research. Different types of sensors such as the camera, LiDAR, and inertial measurement units (IMUs) have been used for this purpose. For detection and tracking with the camera, it is necessary to perform calibration to obtain correct GPS trajectories. This method is often tedious and necessitates accurate ground truth data. Moreover, if the camera performs any pan-tilt-zoom function, it is usually necessary to recalibrate the camera. In this thesis, we propose camera calibration using an auxiliary sensor: ultra-wideband (UWB). USBs are capable of tracking a road user with ten-centimeter-level accuracy. Once a VRU with a UWB traverses in the camera view, the UWB GPS data is fused with the camera to perform real-time calibration. As the experimental results in this thesis have shown, the camera is able to output better trajectories after calibration. It is expected that the use of UWB is needed only once to fuse the data and determine the correct trajectories at the same intersection and location of the camera. All other trajectories collected by the camera can be corrected using the same adjustment. In addition, data analysis was conducted to evaluate the performance of the UWB sensors. This study also predicted pedestrian trajectories using data fused by the UWB and smartphone sensors. UWB GPS coordinates are very accurate although it lacks other sensor parameters such as accelerometer, gyroscope, etc. The smartphone data have been used in this scenario to augment the UWB data. The two datasets were merged on the basis of the closest timestamp. The resulting dataset has precise latitude and longitude from UWB as well as the accelerometer, gyroscope, and speed data from smartphones making the fused dataset accurate and rich in terms of parameters. The fused dataset was then used to predict the GPS coordinates of pedestrians and scooters using LSTM.
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Master of Science (M.S.)
College of Engineering and Computer Science
Civil, Environmental and Construction Engineering
Civil Engineering; Smart Cities Track
Length of Campus-only Access
Masters Thesis (Open Access)
Wang, Zhongchuan, "Detecting and Tracking Vulnerable Road Users' Trajectories Using Different Types of Sensors Fusion" (2022). Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-. 1452.