Intravenous needle insertion and blood draws are common experiences for pediatric patients. These experiences evoke a high level of distress. Providing preparation information is one intervention used to reduce procedure-related distress. Research as to why preparation information results in better outcomes is scant. The current study sought to better understand the mechanisms responsible for the relationship between preparation information and reduced distress. It is hypothesized that there would be an indirect effect between knowledge and distress via cognitive appraisals of threat and coping skills. One hundred and twenty-one children ages 8-13 receiving an IV or blood draw participated. None of the hypothesized relationships were supported. However, the more total knowledge children held, the less aversive they viewed the procedure. Additionally, cognitive appraisals were positively associated with distress. These findings extend existing research by examining both subtypes of cognitive appraisals and examining coping. Additionally, the study was successful in assessing study relationships with a racially diverse sample and found no difference between White and non-White individuals. The two significant relationships demonstrate the need to assess knowledge and cognitive appraisals prior to procedures and, when necessary, provide intervention to increase knowledge and decrease cognitive appraisals to improve procedure-related distress.
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Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
College of Sciences
Length of Campus-only Access
Doctoral Dissertation (Campus-only Access)
Bernstein, Emily, "Children's Knowledge of Intravenous Needle Insertion and Distress: The Indirect Effects of Cognitive Appraisals of Threat and Coping" (2023). Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-. 1512.
Restricted to the UCF community until May 2028; it will then be open access.