The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of personal attributes, risk perception, and risk reduction strategies on travel intention in the specific context of U.S. travelers and the island destination of Bali, Indonesia. The variables examined in this study are personality traits, subjective knowledge, risk experience, perceived risk, emotion, risk reduction strategies, and intention to visit. Travelers with certain personal attributes (personality traits, subjective knowledge, and risk experience) were asked to evaluate destination risk factors and develop risk perceptions and emotions. They were also asked about different risk-reduction strategies and how each would impact their considerations to visit the destination. The method used in this study was a quantitative approach. The data were collected from U.S. travelers with a non-probability sampling procedure. Participants were asked to complete an online survey through Amazon MTurk. The survey was completed on November 11, 2020. A total of 594 usable responses were retained for data analysis. Descriptive analysis was conducted to describe the socio-demographic and travel experiences of the respondents. PLS-SEM statistical analysis with SmartPLS v.3.0 was then conducted to examine the effects of personal attributes and risk-related variables on intent to visit. Findings showed that risk experience positively influenced risk perception, while psychocentric personality traits and subjective knowledge positively influenced emotion. Risk perception was found not to inhibit intention to visit. In addition, respondents had relatively positive emotion levels regarding the destination. However, risk perception had a positive influence on the intention to engage in various risk reduction strategies, except information search. Only trust and financial strategies had positive influences on intent to visit. The effects of risk perception and emotions in influencing risk reduction strategies were different according to the experienced and non-experienced groups. This study adds to the limited knowledge of tourist risk reduction behaviors in the context of a vulnerable island destination. This study proposes a conceptual framework that provides a more integrated understanding of risk-related behavior. Exploring the complexity of tourists' behavior regarding risk could expand our understanding of how tourists respond to different types of risks. DMOs must understand how tourists respond to different types of risks and support effective strategies to alleviate risk perception.


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Graduation Date





Fyall, Alan


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)


Rosen College of Hospitality Management

Degree Program

Hospitality Management









Release Date


Length of Campus-only Access

1 year

Access Status

Doctoral Dissertation (Open Access)


Rosen College of Hospitality Management