Abbreviated Journal Title
Appl. Phys. Lett.
A tunable-focus spherical lens using two flat substrates and inhomogeneous electric field over a homogeneous liquid crystal (LC) layer is demonstrated. The top flat substrate has an imbedded spherical indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrode and the bottom has a planar ITO electrode on its inner surface. The inhomogeneous electric field generates a centrosymmetric gradient refractive index profile within the LC layer which causes the focusing behavior. The focal length of the LC lens can be tuned continuously from infinity to 0.6 m by the applied voltage.
Applied Physics Letters
Ren, Hongwen; Fan, Yun-Hsing; Gauza, Sebastian; and Wu, Shin-Tson, "Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens" (2004). Faculty Bibliography 2000s. 4734.