Vaporization and collision modeling of liquid fuel sprays in a co-axial fuel and air pre-mixer



X. Gu; S. Basu;R. Kumar


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Abbreviated Journal Title

Int. J. Heat Mass Transf.


Biofuels; Mono-dispersed spray; Vaporization; Collision modeling; DROPLET COLLISION; BIOFUEL DROPLETS; COMBUSTION; EVAPORATION; DISPERSION; COALESCENCE; ALGORITHM; FLOW; Thermodynamics; Engineering, Mechanical; Mechanics


Droplet collision occurs frequently in regions where the droplet number density is high. Even for Lean Premixed and Pre-vaporized (LPP) liquid sprays, the collision effects can be very high on the droplet size distributions, which will in turn affect the droplet vaporization process. Hence, in conjunction with vaporization modeling, collision modeling for such spray systems is also essential. The standard O'Rourke's collision model, usually implemented in CFD codes, tends to generate unphysical numerical artifact when simulations are performed on Cartesian grid and the results are not grid independent. Thus, a new collision modeling approach based on no-time-counter method (NTC) proposed by Schmidt and Rutland is implemented to replace O'Rourke's collision algorithm to solve a spray injection problem in a cylindrical coflow premixer. The so called "four-leaf clover" numerical artifacts are eliminated by the new collision algorithm and results from a diesel spray show very good grid independence. Next, the dispersion and vaporization processes for liquid fuel sprays are simulated in a coflow premixer. Two liquid fuels under investigation are jet-A and Rapeseed Methyl Esters (RME). Results show very good grid independence in terms of SMD distribution, droplet number distribution and fuel vapor mass flow rate. A baseline test is first established with a spray cone angle of 90 degrees and injection velocity of 3 m/s and jet-A achieves much better vaporization performance than RME due to its higher vapor pressure. To improve the vaporization performance for both fuels, a series of simulations have been done at several different combinations of spray cone angle and injection velocity. At relatively low spray cone angle and injection velocity, the collision effect on the average droplet size and the vaporization performance are very high due to relatively high coalescence rate induced by droplet collisions. Thus, at higher spray cone angle and injection velocity, the results expectedly show improvement in fuel vaporization performance since smaller droplet has a higher vaporization rate. The vaporization performance and the level of homogeneity of fuel-air mixture can be significantly improved when the dispersion level is high, which can be achieved by increasing the spray cone angle and injection velocity. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Journal Title

International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer





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