Environmental Factors Affecting Germination and Seedling Survival of Carolina Willow (Salix Caroliniana)
Abbreviated Journal Title
Florida; Hydrology; Invasive species; Restoration; Riparian zone; Salix; spp.; TAMARIX-RAMOSISSIMA; RESPONSES; REGIMES; RESTORATION; FLOODPLAINS; SALICACEAE; DEMOGRAPHY; AUSTRALIA; ECOSYSTEM; SAWGRASS; Ecology; Environmental Sciences
In recent decades, invasive shrubs have replaced herbaceous wetlands in many parts of the world. In Florida, the native shrub Salix caroliniana Michx. (Carolina willow) expanded its distribution throughout the upper St. Johns River, replacing herbaceous marshes with willow swamps. To identify ways to prevent its expansion, we experimentally tested the effects of watering regime, temperature, substrate, and seed source on willow germination and seedling survival. In growth chamber experiments, germination and survival were most affected by watering regime and were greatest in saturated, organic soils. Survival decreased with soil inundation and on drier, sandy soils. Variable texture and nutrient content in native soils had no differential effect on germination or survivability of willow. Time of seed production, seed source, and delay in watering significantly affected germination. Seed germination occurred quickly after being sown. However, seed viability declined just as quickly. Whenever a soil held sufficient water, especially through capillarity, seeds of Carolina willow germinated and survived well. Seasonal manipulation of water levels to flood marshes during seed-fall and to inundate willow seedlings provides managers with an effective strategy for reducing establishment of Carolina willow.
"Environmental Factors Affecting Germination and Seedling Survival of Carolina Willow (Salix Caroliniana)" (2014). Faculty Bibliography 2010s. 5136.